The aim of this study was to assess the thickness of the scars on the left arm of a female third-degree burn patient through ultrasonic examination in order to investigate the use of mm Hg pressure garments, which are a key treatment for burns. The patient Scars on arms yahoo dating injured with third-degree burns more than 10 years ago. Sixteen scars were examined.
The resulting Pearson correlation of the forearm and upper arm was 0. Therefore, in this case, all data points fell on a straight line with a positive upward slope. This result indicated thicknesses for the upper arm and forearm third-degree burn scars; this result displays different thickness for the upper arms and forearm the third degree burn scars; the scars did not spread evenly due to the loading capacity of different parts of body instead of the pressure by pressure garment.
This paper provides accurate information to manufacturers, therapists, and tailors regarding measurements for pressure garments. To our knowledge, this is the first study to correlate the thickness of third-degree burns through ultrasound scan.
Asian skin is characterised by increased proliferation of fibroblast and more vigorous collagen formation, which results in prolonged erythema compared with Caucasian skin.
Consequently, scars in most Asian patients require longer maturing [ 23 ]. Generally, wounds that do not heal within 2—3 weeks are considered most at risk for excessive scar formation [ 14 - 6 ]. Asians are more likely to Scars on arms yahoo dating hypertrophic scars compared with Caucasians, and Africans are more likely to develop hypertrophic scars than Asians [ 57 ].
Hypertrophic scarring is very common among the Chinese population [ 8 ]. In general, hypertrophic scarring occurs more frequently in women and patients of younger age groups [ 9 ]. Scars can be emotionally devastating, leading to mental and emotional complications.
Scars can be disfiguring and aesthetically unpleasant. The side effects of scarring may include severe itching, tenderness, pain, sleep disturbances, anxietydepressionand disruption of daily activities [ 5 ]. Scarring is a natural part of the Scars on arms yahoo dating process after an injury.
Scar appearance and treatment depends on multiple factors, including wound depth, size, and location and the age, sex, ethnicity, and genetics of the patient. Types of scars "Scars on arms yahoo dating" hypertrophic scars HSs and keloid scars [ 1011 ].
HSs represent an abnormal, exaggerated healing response after skin injury. In addition to cosmetic concerns, scars may cause pain, pruritus, contractures, and other functional impairments [ 451012 - 18 ]. Although hypertrophic scarring commonly occurs following burns, many aspects, such as its incidence and optimal treatment, remain unclear.
After burn injury, they typically appear on the trunk and extremities. Frequently, HSs are misdiagnosed as keloids. Their gross appearance is similar; however, keloids proliferate or originate beyond the wound margin [ 151011131819 ].
The basic principle in scar treatment is applying constant pressure to the scars to occlude the capillaries and restrict oxygen availability to the affected region [ 72021 ]. The nature of scarring appears to depend on factors such as race, age, genetic predisposition, hormone levels, atopy, patient immunologic responses, type of Scars on arms yahoo dating, wound size and depth, anatomic region affected, and mechanical tension on the wound [ 14 ].
Pressure garments have been the mainstay of HS and keloid treatment since the early s. Although pressure garments are widely used, their efficacy has not been scientifically proven [ 1623 - 26 ]. Many unanswered questions remain concerning their effective use and fabrication [ 1623 - 30 ]. The garments must be worn 23 hours a day and removed for 1 hour for hygiene purposes, such as moisturising the skin or massaging the scar.
Scars must be moisturised once or twice a day with mild moisturiser and massage to soften the scars. Scars should be massaged firmly to help disband the bundles of collagen within the scar.
Massaging and applying skin creams reduce any itching caused by "Scars on arms yahoo dating" maturing scars [ 1623 - 252829 ]. Without the constant pressure of the garment, the collagen fibres of the scar tissue grow unsystematically, whereas the inner structure of a scar matured under constant pressure more closely resembles the natural patterns of fibres in healthy skin [ 20 - 222631 ].
Burn scars are probably the scars with the highest impact on quality of life [ 17 ]. Both physical and psychological effects related to excessive scarring may hamper quality of life, including the often lengthy, painful treatment, which often provides only a suboptimal result [ 1832 ].
Generally, a period where the pressure garment is worn for at least 6—18 months is required for burn scar maturation, at which time the redness erythema of the scar subsides, the scar no longer appears inflamed, and the scar contracture diminishes [ 15 ]. Noninvasive skin thickness measurement has been proposed and used clinically with varying degrees of success.
This technique is useful not only for objective assessment but also for comparing two or more treatment techniques [ 7223334 ].
In this study, ultrasound measurements were conducted by an experienced medical Doctor who was trained to use this device by radiologists; ultrasound equipment Philips HD15 Sonic CT was used to measure the thickness of normal skin and scars. The patient in the present study age: We examined the left arm and hand, which had third-degree burn injuries.
On 27 December and 21 November16 scars eight flameburned scars on the upper arm and eight flame-burned scars on the forearm were quantitatively measured using ultrasound technology to determine their thickness and heights from the decade-old burn scar tissue.
First, we used a marker to highlight the location of the scar from the upper arm to forearm randomly Figures 1 and 2. Sufficient ultrasound gel was applied to mark a location between the ultrasound gel and the surface of the skin Figure 2.
The patient had 16 burn scars measured from the upper arm to outside elbow: The result was a Pearson correlation of forearm and upper arm was 0. Therefore, in the case, all of data fell on straight line with positive upward slope. The marker pen indicates the order of the hand ultrasonic position. A sufficient amount of ultrasound gel was Scars on arms yahoo dating to mark a place between the water gel and the surface of skin.
There were 16 flames, Burns measured from upper arm: Elbow crease, beneath the Medial elbow scar, Forearm Medial to Elbow 3 cm. Thickness of the Third degree burns by record ultrasound measurement on left hand There were 16 flames, Burns measured from upper arm: Descriptive statistics were used to describe scar thickness and prevalence for the sample measured through ultrasound scan.
Statistical analysis was performed using Minitab v. The mean thicknesses of these 16 scars from the upper arm and forearm were 0. We determined that the thickness of normal skin was 0.
The result was a Pearson correlation of forearm and upper arm of 0. Therefore, in the case, all the data fell on a straight line with a positive upward slope Table 1 and Figure 1. The mean of prominent scars of these 16 scars from upper arm was 0. Mean, Standard Deviation S. Median, minimum Min and maximum Max values for compression of 25mmHg Scar thickness is calculated in centimeters. We determined that the statistical distribution of forearm Scars on arms yahoo dating scars was approximately 1.
Histogram of prominent scars. Using the quartile calculation of thirddegree burns, upper arm and forearm scars of the full range, the IQ of upper arm is 0.
Moreover, the interquartile ranges IQR of the upper arm and forearm were 0. The ranges for forearm scar thickness were almost twice those for upper-arm scar thickness; the median difference for both was 8. The data were used to roughly estimate the degree of dispersion Figure 5.
To sum up, upper arm was approximately 3. Using the quartile calculation of third-degree burns, upper arm and forearm scars of the full range, the IQRange of upper arm is 0. This study validated the hypothesis that 25 mmHg is not the optimal pressure for female patients with third-degree burns on the left arm. According to previous statistical result, two factors are considered to reduce the function of 25 mmHg pressure garment for "Scars on arms yahoo dating" patients with third-degree burns on the left arm, namely, the same pressure has different results on different body parts and errors of tailored measurement.
Due to the previous discussion, we can confirm that burns at the same depth but on different body parts differ in scar thickness. This explain why some patients require silicone gel sheeting, massage, steroids, Scars on arms yahoo dating presurgical skin graft, so minimal scarring results because identical pressure on different body parts has different results.