Maya codices singular codex are folding books written by the pre-Columbian Maya civilization in Maya hieroglyphic script on Mesoamerican bark paper. The folding books are the products of professional scribes working under the patronage of deities such as the Tonsured Maize God and the Howler Monkey Gods. Most of the codices were destroyed by conquistadors and Catholic priests in the 16th century.
The codices have been named for the cities where they eventually settled. The Dresden codex is generally considered the most important of the few that survive. The paper was made from the inner Definicion de prehispanico yahoo dating of certain trees, the main being the wild fig tree or amate Ficus glabrata. The Maya developed their huun -paper around the 5th century,  which is roughly the same time that the codex became predominant over the scroll in the Roman world.
Maya paper was more durable and a
Definicion de prehispanico yahoo dating writing surface than papyrus. Our knowledge of ancient Maya thought must represent only a tiny fraction of the whole picture, for of the thousands of books in which the full extent of their learning and ritual was recorded, only four have survived to modern times as though all that posterity knew of ourselves were to be based upon three prayer books and Pilgrim's Progress.
We found a large number of books in these characters and, as they contained nothing in which were not to be seen as superstition and lies of the devil, we burned them all, which they regretted to an amazing degree, and which caused them much affliction.
Such codices were the primary written records of Maya civilization, together with the many inscriptions on stone monuments and stelae that survived. Their range of subject matter in all likelihood embraced more topics than those recorded in stone and buildings, and was more like what is found on painted ceramics the so-called 'ceramic codex'. Alonso de Zorita wrote that in he saw numerous such books in the Guatemalan highlands that "recorded their history for more than eight hundred years back, and that were interpreted for me by very ancient Indians" Zorita A fourth codex that remained controversial until has been authenticated.
Recent research, which includes a study that used everything from X-rays to UV imaging and microscopic analysis, points to its authenticity. It is the most elaborate of the codices, and also a highly important specimen of Maya art.
Many sections are ritualistic including so-called 'almanacs'others are of an astrological nature eclipsesthe Venus cycles. The codex is written on a long sheet of paper that is 'screen-folded' Definicion de prehispanico yahoo dating make a book of 39 leaves, written on both sides. It was probably written between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries.
The Codex was discovered in Spain in the s; it was divided into two parts of differing sizes that were found in different locations. The Madrid is the longest of the surviving Maya codices.
The codex also contains astronomical tables, although less than are found in the other two generally accepted surviving Maya codices. Some scholars, such as Michael Coe and Justin Kerr,  have suggested that the Madrid Codex dates to after the Spanish conquest but the evidence overwhelmingly favours a pre-conquest date for the document. Other scholars have expressed a differing opinion, noting that the codex is similar in style to murals found at Chichen ItzaMayapan and sites Definicion de prehispanico yahoo dating the east coast such as Santa Rita, Tancah and Tulum.
The Paris Codex also or formerly the Codex Peresianus contains prophecies for tuns and katuns see Maya Calendaras well as a Maya zodiac, and is thus, in both respects, akin to the Books of Chilam Balam.
Three years later the first reproduction drawing of it was prepared for Lord Kingsboroughby his Lombardian Agostino Aglio. The original drawing is now lost, but a copy survives among some of Kingsborough's unpublished proof sheetsheld in collection at the Newberry LibraryChicago. While the three codices above were known to scholars since the 19th century, the Grolier Codex only surfaced in the s.
The codex, said to have been found in a cave, is really a fragment of 11 pages.
Each page shows a hero or god, facing to the left. At the top of each page is a number, and down the left of each page is what appears to be a list of dates. The pages are much less detailed than in the other codices, and hardly provide any information that is not already in the Dresden Codex.
After a study was conducted which includes everything from X-rays to UV imaging and analysis, in the authenticity of the Grolier Codex was announced.
Given the rarity and importance of these books, rumors of Definicion de prehispanico yahoo dating new ones often develop interest. Archaeological excavations of Maya sites have turned up a number of rectangular lumps of plaster and paint flakes, most commonly in elite tombs.
These lumps are the remains of codices where all the organic material has rotted away. A few of the more coherent of these lumps have been preserved, with the slim hope that some technique to be developed by future generations of archaeologists may be able to recover some information from these remains of ancient pages.
Unfortunately, all of them have degraded into unopenable masses or collections of very small flakes and bits of the original texts. Thus it may never be possible to read them.