Sicilian sicilianu ; Italian: It is also spoken in southern and central Calabria where it is called Southern Calabroin the southern parts of Apuliathe Salento where it is known as Salentinoand Campaniaon the Italian peninsula, where it is called Cilentano Gordon, Ethnologue see below for more detail describes Sicilian as being "distinct enough from Standard Italian to be considered a separate language" Gordon.
Some assert that Sicilian represents the oldest Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin Privitera,but this is not a widely held view amongst linguists, and is sometimes strongly criticizedp.
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There is currently no central body, in Sicily or elsewhere, that regulates the language in
Chi sono i sumeri yahoo dating way. However, the Center for Sicilian Philological and Linguistic Studies in Palermo has been researching and publishing information on the Sicilian language since its inception in The autonomous regional parliament of Sicily has legislated to encourage the teaching of Sicilian at all schools, but inroads into the education system have been slow Cipolla, The language is officially recognized in the municipal statutes of Sicilian towns, such as Caltagirone [ 4 ] and Grammichele[ 5 ] in which the "inalienable historical and cultural value of the Sicilian language" is proclaimed.
However, the Italian Parliament has yet to ratify this draft law. The term Calabro-Sicilian refers to the fact that a form of Sicilian, or a dialect closely related to Sicilian, is spoken in central and southern Calabria.
Sicilianu is the name of the language in Sicily itself Gordon. The term "Siculu" describes one of the larger prehistoric groups living in Sicily the Sicels or Siculi before the arrival of Greeks in the 8th century BC see below. It can also be used as an adjective to qualify, or further elaborate on, the origins of a person, for example: Siculo-American siculu-miricanu or Siculo-Australian Gordon. As a language, Sicilian has its own sub-dialectsin the following main groupings Gordon and Bonner Because Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean and virtually all Mediterranean peoples
Chi sono i sumeri yahoo dating passed through it PhoeniciansEgyptiansCarthaginiansGreeksRomansAncient GermansByzantine GreeksMoorsNormansFrenchAragoneseSpanishItaliansSicilian displays the rich and varied influence of several languages on its lexical stock and grammar.
The very earliest influences, visible in Sicilian to this day, exhibit both prehistoric Mediterranean elements and prehistoric Indo-European elements, and occasionally a blending of both Giarizzo and Ruffino Before the Roman conquestSicily was occupied by remnants of the indigenous populations the SicaniElymiSiculithe third arriving between the second and first millennium BCas well as by Phoenicians from between the 10th and 8th centuries BC and Greeks from the 8th century BC.
The Greek language influence remains strongly visible, while the influences from the other groups are less obvious.
What can be stated with certainty is that there remain pre-Indo-European words in Sicilian of an ancient Mediterranean origin, but one cannot be more precise than that. Of the three main prehistoric groups, only the Siculi were Indo-European, and their speech is likely to have been closely related to that of the Romans Ruffino.
The following table illustrates the difficulty linguists face in tackling the various sub-strata of the Sicilian language. The examples are for the English word "twins" Ruffino.
A similar qualifier can be applied to many of the words that appear in this article.
Chi sono i sumeri yahoo dating we may know that a particular word has a prehistoric derivation, but we do not know whether the Sicilians have inherited it directly from the indigenous populations, or whether it has come to them via another route.
Similarly, we might know that a particular word has a Greek origin, but we do not know from which Greek period the Sicilians first used it pre-Roman occupation or during its Byzantine periodor once again, whether the particular word may even have come to Sicily via another route. For instance, by the time the Romans had occupied Sicily during the 3rd century BC, the Latin language had made its own borrowings from Greek Ruffino.
The words with a prehistoric Mediterranean derivation often refer to plants native to the Mediterranean region or to
Chi sono i sumeri yahoo dating natural features. Bearing in mind the qualifiers mentioned above alternative sources are provided where knownexamples of such words include:.
There are also Sicilian words with an ancient Indo-European origin that do not appear to have come to the language via any of the major language groups normally associated with Sicilian, i. The Siculi are a possible source of such words, but there is also the possibility of a cross-over between ancient Mediterranean words and introduced "Chi sono i sumeri yahoo dating" forms. Some examples of Sicilian words with an ancient Indo-European origin:.
The following Sicilian words are of a Greek origin including some examples where it is unclear whether the word is derived directly from Greek, or via Latin:. Vulgar Latin was spoken by the Roman occupation troops who garrisoned Sicily after Rome annexed the island after the end of the First Punic Warca.
A historical feature shared by Sicily, the far south of Calabriaand the province of Lecceis that during the Roman period, these areas were never completely Latinised. Greek
Chi sono i sumeri yahoo dating the main language for the majority of the population. This helps explain the linguistic differences in these areas and those immediately to the north which were, more or less, Latinised Hull.
It is also why Sicilian is often referred to as a neo-Latin language — it did not descend directly from Latin although some linguists disagree with that view, see below. From to AD, the Ostrogothic kingdom ruled Sicily, although their presence did not impact the Sicilian language Ruffino.
The few Germanic influences to be found in Sicilian do not appear to originate from this period. One exception might be abbanniari or vanniari to hawk goods, proclaim publicly from Gothic bandujan - to give a signal. Also possible is schimmenti diagonal from Gothic slimbs slanting. Other sources of Germanic influences include the Hohenstaufen rule of the 13th century, words of Nordic and Germanic origin contained within the speech of 11th century Norman and Lombard settlers, and the short period of Austrian rule in the 18th century.
As the power of the Byzantine Empire waned, Sicily was progressively conquered by Saracens from North Africafrom the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries, and remained there long enough to develop a distinctive local dialect of Arabic, Siculo-Arabic at present
Chi sono i sumeri yahoo dating in Sicily but surviving in the Maltese language.
The Arabic language influence is noticeable in around Sicilian words, most of which relate to agriculture and related activities Hull and Ruffino. This is understandable since the Saracens introduced to Sicily the most then-modern irrigation and farming techniques and a new range of crops — nearly all of which remain endemic to the island to this day.
Some words of Arabic origin:. Throughout the Moorish epoch of Sicilian history, a large Greek-speaking population remained on the island and continued to use the Greek language, or most certainly a variant of Greek influenced by Arabic Hull. What is less clear is the extent to which
Chi sono i sumeri yahoo dating Latin-speaking population survived on the island. While a form of Vulgar Latin clearly survived in isolated communities during the Moorish epoch, there is much debate as to the influence it had if any on the development of the Sicilian language, following the re-Latinisation of Sicily discussed in the next section.
There are few Sicilian words reflecting an archaic Latin form as may be found, for example, in Sardinian or Romanianso the influence may have been minor Hull. However, some forms do exist, so the tantalising prospect of a Sicilian form of a Vulgar Latin surviving the Moorish period and influencing the modern development of Sicilian remains open as already mentioned, Privitera puts forward the radical proposition that medieval Sicilian descends directly from a form of Vulgar Latin that survived throughout the Byzantine and Moorish periods.
By AD the whole of what is today southern Italy, including Sicily, was a complex mix of small states and principalitieslanguages and religions Hull. The whole of Sicily was controlled by Muslim Saracens at the elite level, although the general population remained a Greek speaking and predominantly Orthodox Christian population to which was added new Muslim immigrant communities from North Africa.
The far south of the Italian peninsula was part of the Byzantine empire and predominantly Greek speaking, although many communities were reasonably independent of Constantinople. The principality of Salerno was controlled by Lombards or Langobards who had also started to make some incursions into Byzantine territory and had managed to establish some isolated independent city-states Norwich It was into this mix that the Normans thrust themselves in ever increasing numbers during the first half of the 11th century.
When the two most famous of southern Italy 's Norman adventurers, Roger of Hauteville and his brother, Robert Guiscardbegan their conquest of Sicily inthey already controlled the far south of Italy Apulia and Calabria. It took Roger 30 years to complete the conquest of Sicily Robert died inNorwich. In the process, the re-vitalization of Latin in Sicily had begun, along with the marginalization of Islam the Christian faith continued among the general population during the Saracen period and it was only the ruling Muslim elite who were adherents of Islam, not the Sicilians themselves.
A considerable number of Norman words was to be absorbed by the new language during this period, [ citation needed ] for example:. The following factors that emerged during or immediately after the conquest were to prove critical in the formation of the Sicilian language:. We can see above the main factors that go into framing the Sicilian language as we know it today.
The Vulgar Latin base predominantly from Campania was similar to the Vulgar Latin in central Italy and therefore, by implication, reasonably similar to the Vulgar Latin in Tuscany that would eventually form the base for the national language. This base from Campania was influenced by the many Gallic influences present in Sicily at the time, namely Norman, French and Langobardic.
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Underneath that were remnants of the Arabic and Greek idioms that the new language eventually replaced, but hundreds of words remained in the vocabulary of the changing Romance language.
The Lombard influence is of particular interest.
Even to the present day, a Gallo-siculo dialect exists in the areas where the Lombard colonies were the strongest, namely NovaraNicosiaSperlingaAidone and Piazza Armerina Hull. The Gallo-Italic influence was also felt on the Sicilian language itself, as follows Hull:. It was during the reign of Frederick II or Frederick I of Sicily between andwith his patronage of the Sicilian School of poetry, that Sicilian became the first of the Italic idioms to be used as a literary language Cipolla p.
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The influence of the school and the use of Sicilian itself as a poetic language was acknowledged by the two great Tuscan writers of the early Renaissance period, Dante and Petrarch. The influence of the Sicilian language should not be underestimated in the eventual formulation of a lingua franca that was to become modern Italian. The victory of the Angevin army over the Sicilians at Benevento in not only marked the end of the year Norman- Swabian reign in Sicily, it effectively ensured that the centre of literary influence would eventually move from Sicily to Tuscany Cipolla p.
While Sicilian, as both an official and literary language would continue to exist for another two centuries, the language would soon follow the fortunes of the kingdom itself in terms of prestige and influence. As a side note, there are some "Chi sono i sumeri yahoo dating" influences in the Sicilian language, and many of these date back to the time
Chi sono i sumeri yahoo dating the Swabian kings amongst whom Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor enjoyed the longest reign.
It should be noted that many of the below words are "reintroductions" of Latin words also found in modern Italian that were Germanicized at some point i. Words that probably originate from this era include:. Following the Sicilian Vespers ofthe kingdom was to come under the influence of the Kingdom of Aragon Runcimanand as a result, the Catalan language and the closely related Aragonese would add a new layer of vocabulary in the succeeding century.
For the whole of the 14th century, both Catalan and Sicilian were the official languages of the royal court Hughes Sicilian was also used to record the proceedings of the parliament of Sicily one of
Chi sono i sumeri yahoo dating oldest parliaments in Europe and for other official purposes Cipollap.
By the time the crowns of Castille and Aragon were united in the late 15th century, the Italianisation of written Sicilian in the parliamentary and court records had commenced.
By this process was virtually complete, with the Tuscan dialect of Italian becoming the lingua franca of the Italian peninsula and supplanting written Sicilian Cipolla p. Spanish rule lasted over three centuries not counting the Aragonese and Bourbon periods on either side and had a significant influence on the Sicilian vocabulary.
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The following words are of Spanish derivation:. Since the Italian Unification the Risorgimento of —the Sicilian language has been significantly influenced by Tuscan Italian.
This process has quickened since World War II due to improving educational standards and the impact of mass media, such that increasingly, even within the family home, Sicilian is not necessarily the language of choice. The Sicilian Regional
Chi sono i sumeri yahoo dating recently voted to make the teaching of Sicilian a part of the school curriculum at primary school level, but as of only a fraction of schools teach Sicilian. There is also little in the way of mass media offered in Sicilian.
The combination of these factors means that the Sicilian language continues to adopt Italian vocabulary and grammatical forms to such an extent that many Sicilians themselves cannot distinguish between correct and incorrect Sicilian language usage. Sicilian has a number of consonant sounds which, though not unique to Sicilian, certainly set it apart from the other major Romance languages. The most unusual sounds include, but are not limited to, the retroflex consonants or cacuminals Cipolla Rarely indicated in writing, spoken Sicilian exhibits syntactic doubling or raddoppiamento
Chi sono i sumeri yahoo datingwhich means that the first consonant of a word is lengthened when it is preceded by a vowel in the preceding word, e.
This process of lengthening is also called geminationwhich is a general term used for the lengthening of any sound. The letter j at the start of a word can have three separate sounds, depending on what precedes the word Cipolla Another difference between the written and spoken languages is the extent to which contractions will occur in everyday speech.
Thus a common expression such as avemu an accattari Don Chisciotti e Sanciu Panza (Cantu quintu) . in the Sicilian language, and many of these date back to the time of the Swabian kings. In standard literary Sicilian, the sound is rendered as ci (representing the voiceless .
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