Tommaso d'Aquinolit. He was an immensely influential philosophertheologianand jurist in the tradition of scholasticismwithin which he is also known as the Doctor Angelicus and the Doctor Communis.
He was the foremost classical proponent of natural theology and the father of Thomism ; of which he argued that reason is found in God.
His influence on Western thought is considerable, and much of modern philosophy developed or opposed his ideas, particularly in the areas of ethics, natural lawmetaphysicsand political theory. Unlike many currents in the Church of the time,  Thomas embraced several ideas put forward by Aristotle —whom he called "the Philosopher"—and attempted to synthesize Aristotelian philosophy with the principles of Christianity.
His commentaries on Scripture and on Aristotle also form an important part of his body of work. Furthermore, Thomas is distinguished for his eucharistic hymns, which form a part of the Church's liturgy.
The Catholic Church honors Thomas Aquinas as a saint and regards him "Biografia de ptolomeo resumida yahoo dating" the model teacher for those studying for the priesthood, and indeed the highest expression of both natural reason and speculative theology.
In modern times, under papal directives, the study of his works was long used as a core of the required program of study for those seeking ordination as priests or deacons, as well as for those in religious formation and for other students of the sacred disciplines philosophy, Catholic theology, church history, liturgy, and canon law.
Thomas Aquinas is considered one of the Catholic Church's greatest theologians and philosophers. Pope Benedict XV declared: Thomas was most probably born in the castle of RoccaseccaAquinoin the Kingdom of Sicily present-day LazioItalyc.
Though he did not belong to the most powerful branch of the family, Landulf of Aquino was a man of means. As a knight in the service of King Roger IIhe held the title miles. Thomas's mother, Theodora, belonged to the Rossi branch of the Neapolitan Caracciolo family.
While the rest of the family's sons pursued military careers,  the family intended for Thomas to follow his uncle into the abbacy;  this would have been a normal career path for a younger son of southern Italian nobility. At the age of five Thomas began his early education at Monte Cassino but after the military conflict between the Emperor Frederick II and Pope Gregory IX spilled into the abbey in earlyLandulf and Theodora had Thomas enrolled at the studium generale university recently established by Frederick in Naples.
Julian, a Dominican preacher in Naples, who was part of the active effort by the Dominican order to recruit devout followers. At the age of nineteen Thomas resolved to join the recently founded Dominican Order. Thomas's change of heart did not please his family. Thomas was held prisoner for almost one year in the family castles at Monte San Giovanni and Roccasecca in an attempt to prevent him from assuming the Dominican habit and to push him into renouncing his new aspiration.
At one point, two of his brothers resorted to the measure of hiring a prostitute to seduce him. According to legend, Thomas drove her away wielding a fire iron and two angels appeared to him as he slept and strengthened his determination to remain celibate. Byseeing that all of her attempts to dissuade Thomas had failed, Theodora sought to save the family's dignity, arranging for Thomas to escape at night through his window. In her mind, a secret escape from detention was less damaging than an open surrender to the Dominicans.
But Albertus prophetically exclaimed: Thomas taught in Cologne as an apprentice professor baccalaureus biblicusinstructing students on the books of the Old Testament and writing Expositio super Isaiam ad litteram Literal Commentary on IsaiahPostilla super Ieremiam Commentary on Jeremiah and Postilla super Threnos Commentary on Lamentations. He lectured on the Bible as an apprentice professor, and upon becoming a baccalaureus Sententiarum bachelor of the Sentences  devoted his final three years of study to commenting on Peter Lombard 's Sentences.
In the first of his four theological syntheses, Thomas composed a massive commentary on the Sentences titled Scriptum super libros Sententiarium Commentary on the Sentences. Aside from his masters writings, he wrote De ente et essentia On Being and Essence for his fellow Dominicans in Paris.
In the spring of Thomas was appointed regent master in theology at and one of his first works upon assuming this office was Contra impugnantes Dei cultum et religionem Against Those Biografia de ptolomeo resumida yahoo dating Assail the Worship of God and Religiondefending the mendicant orderswhich had come under attack by William of Saint-Amour.
Questiones disputatae de veritate Disputed Questions on Trutha collection of twenty-nine disputed questions on aspects of faith and the human condition  prepared for the public university debates he presided over on Lent and Advent ;  Quaestiones quodlibetales Quodlibetal Questionsa collection of his responses Biografia de ptolomeo resumida yahoo dating questions posed to him by the academic audience;  and both Expositio super librum Boethii De trinitate Commentary on Boethius's De trinitate and Expositio super librum Boethii De hebdomadibus Commentary on Boethius's De hebdomadibuscommentaries on the works of 6th-century Roman philosopher Boethius.
In Thomas completed his first regency at the studium generale and left Paris so that others in his order could gain this teaching experience.
He returned to Naples where he was appointed as general preacher by the provincial chapter of 29 September In September he was called to Orvieto as conventual lector he was responsible for the pastoral formation of the friars unable to attend a studium generale.
Modern scholarship has confirmed that Thomas was indeed the author of these texts, a point that some had contested. This same year he was ordered by the Dominican Chapter of Agnani  to teach at the studium conventuale at the Roman convent of Santa Sabinafounded some years before, in Prior to this time the Roman Province had offered no specialized education of any sort, no arts, no philosophy; only simple convent schools, with their basic courses in theology for resident friars, were functioning in Tuscany and the "Biografia de ptolomeo resumida yahoo dating" during the first several decades of the order's life.
The new studium provinciale at Santa Sabina was to be a more advanced school for the province. While at the Santa Sabina studium provinciale Thomas began his most famous work, the Summa theologiae which he conceived of specifically as suited to beginning students: As the Apostle says in 1 Corinthians 3: In November he was with Thomas and his associate Biografia de ptolomeo resumida yahoo dating secretary Reginald of Pipernoas they left Viterbo on their way to Paris to begin the academic year.
Thomas remained at the studium at Santa Sabina from until he was called back to Paris in for a second teaching regency. A new convent of the Order at the Church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva had a modest beginning in as a community for women converts, but grew rapidly in size and importance after being given over to the Dominicans friars in In the 20th century the college was relocated to the convent of Saints Dominic and Sixtus and was transformed into the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum.
In the Dominican order assigned Thomas to be regent master at the University of Paris for a second time, a position he held until the spring of Part of the reason for this sudden reassignment appears to have arisen from the rise of " Averroism " or "radical Aristotelianism " in the universities. In response to these perceived errors, Thomas wrote two works, one of them being De unitate intellectus, contra Averroistas On the Unity of Intellect, against the Averroists in which he reprimands Averroism as incompatible with Christian doctrine.
Disputes with some important Franciscans conspired to make his second regency much more difficult and troubled than the first. A year before Thomas re-assumed the regency at the —67 Paris disputations, Franciscan master William of Baglione accused Thomas of encouraging Averroists, most likely counting him as one of the "blind leaders of the blind".
Eleonore Stump says, "It has also been persuasively argued that Aquinas's De aeternitate mundi was directed in particular against his Franciscan colleague in theology, John Pecham. In reality, Thomas was deeply disturbed by the spread of Averroism and was angered when he discovered Siger of Brabant teaching Averroistic interpretations of Aristotle to Parisian students. In what appears to be an attempt to counteract the growing fear of Aristotelian thought, Thomas conducted a series of disputations between and In Thomas took leave from the University of Paris when the Dominicans from his home province called upon him to establish a studium generale wherever he liked and staff it as he pleased.
He chose to establish the institution in Naples, and moved there to take his post as regent master. He also preached to the people of Naples every day in Lent, Biografia de ptolomeo resumida yahoo dating sermons on the commandments, the creed, the Our Father, and Hail Mary were very popular. On one occasion, at at the Dominican convent of Naples in the chapel of Saint Nicholas after MatinsThomas lingered and was seen by the sacristan Domenic of Caserta to be levitating in prayer with tears before an Biografia de ptolomeo resumida yahoo dating of the crucified Christ.
Christ said to Thomas, "You have written well of me, Thomas. What reward would you have for your labor? On 6 Decemberanother mystical experience took place. While he was celebrating Mass, he experienced an unusually long ecstasy. When Reginald begged him to get back to work, Thomas replied: What exactly triggered Thomas's change in behavior is believed by Catholics to have been some kind of supernatural experience of God.
On his way to the Council, riding on a donkey along the Appian Way he struck his head on the branch of a fallen tree and became seriously ill again. He was then quickly escorted to Monte Cassino to convalesce. For centuries, there have been recurring claims that Thomas had the ability to levitate.