Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Celtic divine names in the Iberian Peninsula: Celtic Religion across Space and Time J.
Altar de los Lugoves. Joao Correia Santos Inscripciones rupestres y espacios sagrados del norte de Portugal: This method, and more specifically the Kernel densi- ty analysis, allows us to recognize the worship areas of the different divine names, as well as to trace their secondary extensions through close or distant environments.
An attempt is made to integrate the distributional data obtained into a specific socio-economic and political context; i. The most remarkable results are: Hispania is based almost exclusively on epigraph- With these precedents, since the s the ic material because, unlike other areas of Europe, study of religious expressions has been both iconographic indicators and textual refer- addressed by more objective approaches, where ences are scarce.
These studies, based on the rigid compose it. This work is based on a classification functional classification used by early researchers, that distinguishes between the purely indigenous provided an anarchic overview, composed by a testimonies, those who appear together with high number of indigenous cults and of basically Roman divinities, and
Lenguas indoeuropeas yahoo dating which are doubtful; local character. The resulting subject were to change their course.
On the one categorization is contextualized according to geo- hand, the recording and systematic review of the graphical and cultural criteria which are not always peninsular epigraphic corpus related to vernacular objective. Furthermore, the discovery of new sis of votive altars: Usually, they do not specify objections. To begin with, the usual problems of the geographic coordinates of the pieces, making reading and contextualization of the epigraphic difficult a detailed analysis of their spatial distribu- material in many instances prevent us from draw- tion patterns.
But these deficiencies, Therefore, and with intent to palliate —at least in inherent in any research process based on archae- part— this problem, this paper presents
Lenguas indoeuropeas yahoo dating new ological materials, are exacerbated by other nega- methodological approach for the study of Hispan- tive aspects which obstruct an objective percep- ic indigenous religiosity based on Geographical tion of Lenguas indoeuropeas yahoo dating religious phenomena.
This intention now to provide definitive results but leads to the recurrence of continental models when rather to show the possibilities offered by these explaining the whole set of peninsular religious new analytical tools.
What we have done is focal- behaviours, which, in some cases, create misinter- izing spatially different cults, analysing their possi-
Lenguas indoeuropeas yahoo dating and a lack of attention to their more than ble processes of geographic dispersion and, final- presumable heterogeneity. This omission results in the loss of the of this methodology and its potential results.
In addition, for Fortunately, parallel to this vision, in the last updating data regarding the Portuguese material decade some critic approaches have developed we have had the invaluable help of Dr. Amilcar that attenuate the commented defiencies thanks Guerra1. In addition, the uncertainty or conflict about the origin of some pieces makes us suspect in some cases that the same item appears in duplicate by counting, depending on the publication handled, with differ- ent provenances.
Data regarding each of the dedications includ- ed in this study are organized into an Excel table into which are entered individually the divine name from now on DNthe place of origin town and provincethe geographical coordinates UTM Universal Transversal Mercator and —if available— the chronology. This system allows to sort and Indigenous DNN still remains important in total.
After establishing these linguistic categories, In the specialized literature usually just the area or we proceeded to order the elements contained in town of provenance is mentioned without any each of them by the number of dedications. Hence, after estab- process allowed us to select
Lenguas indoeuropeas yahoo dating elements to be lishing its generic origin, it was necessary to geo- included in this analysis.
It is important to state reference each of the entries by means of the that, for their statistical irrelevance, all those DNN Google Earth application. It is important to state, showing less than three dedications have been therefore, that the determination of the coordi- excluded from this analysis.
This implies a DNN are commonly recorded. Significant gaps are certain degree of inaccuracy but, by means of the perceived in the eastern and southern areas of the tools now used, it must be considered much more Peninsula, of basically non-Indoeuropean linguis- precise than the traditional map dotting.
As a result of these actions we have gathered Other gaps, like the middle bassin of the river dedications containing some sort of native Duero, have a different meaning since we are deal- element. However, once generated the corpus of ing here with a Celtic-speaking area, which means dedications, it has been subjected to a preliminary they will have to be explored in detail further on. This led us to define three categories: The traditional cartography of the dedications involving indigenous DN.
Thus, the techniques developed by To address this kind of distributional represen- Quantitative Geography through the New Informa- tation there are several methods —representation tion Technologies NIT have fostered an important of gradients, distribution of points, densities, near-
Lenguas indoeuropeas yahoo dating in the study of the interaction of mankind est neighbor, etc. Bbw sucking and licking my dick 003
Among them, one of the most with the territory. Thus, the analysis of com- the pixel, having a higher measured value as plex phenomena using this procedure overcomes we approach the point of percentile and less- the conventional systems of representation by er as we move away from it.
In this case the icons or lines, that are not useful for the mapping density maps obtained are characterized by
Lenguas indoeuropeas yahoo dating of many parameters or when their information is smooth surface and graduated transitions, very versatile, since the result is often a map too representing the areas of greatest influence of confusing and therefore incomprehensible.
The calculation of the densities of the spatial dis- tribution of a phenomenon can be applied from dif- Kernel densities are determined by the following ferent mathematical assumptions depending on the formula: It is not possible to establish a priori which of these methods is more effective for spatial studies in Archaeology, leaving the final choice to the researcher who will decide after having analysed the nature of the data to man- age.
Lenguas indoeuropeas yahoo dating the studies of Spatial Archaeolo- being the description of its elements: The points will represent a specific value and will be divided randomly. There are several types of Kernel, namely Uni- These maps are useful for showing the densi- form, Triangular, Cosine, or Gaussian, the latter ty and amount of an event, but the major being used in our work.
Depending on the chosen objection is that they do not show the density type the Kernel will take a particular form, but all of the variable represented in comparison with of them are based on the method of calculation adjacent areas. In a number of trials it could be observed that the outcome of all of them is very 2. From that group of
Lenguas indoeuropeas yahoo dating is a theoretical raster model cartograph- points its distribution tendency is determined —i.
The final prod- changes in the estimated density values. Focal densities or Kernel: For the proper development of a Kernel focal - Related to this is the choice of the output cell density is necessary to pre-configure
Lenguas indoeuropeas yahoo dating size of the densities. Similarly, after some the operating parameters, as they are crucial in analysis we decided to use a pixel width of 50 the outcome.
After studying the data available and meters of side, allowing to reach a syntony the space where they were going to be applied, between the time spent in the calculation and we chose the following: The study covers the entire Iberian The measurement unit of the final results is Peninsula, which is represented by a raster expressed in km2.
However, of columns and rows, with a pixel methodologically these pixels are not individually width of meters of side. This pixel size significant but in the whole Kernel, since in the provides a cell size with an acceptable visual final output of these cartographic expresions the quality, eliminating the effects of pixellation. Within the focal densities, the choice of tion with socio-economic and political aspects the radius of surface to use as a basis for cal- which have not been sufficiently evaluated so far.
To these categories might be added a fourth works of Quantitative Geography De Cos one; that of those Roman cults which are linked to, we performed a preliminary analy- an indigenous element and which are to be consid- sis of the relationship of "nearest neighbors" of ered separately because of their specific nature. As our intention was to analyse the 1.
High coincidence of the two spheres in distribution of influence of the different macro-geographical terms. Differences in the regional coverage of the cults, 3.
It follows an apparent higher degree of smaller in the Celtic DNN and somewhat more exten- nucleation of non-Celtic DNN, with seven sig- sive in non-Celtic DNN, the latter more compact and nificant foci compared to the five of those whith whith well defined foci in the western fringe of the Celtic profile. Peninsula and upper basin of the river Ebro. In the same way, Figure 3 shows the observable 2. Higher versatility of the indigenous cults in differences in the patterns of worship to divinities their environments of provenance: Importance of the hinterland of Augusta Bracara as an agglutinating element of dedica- 1.
Higher geographical coverage of indigenous tions, followed by the territoria of Norba, Con- cults than the Roman ones with native ele- cordia and Conimbriga in Lusitania, and the ments, which shows that we are dealing with three main urban centers of the Conventus
Lenguas indoeuropeas yahoo dating, though not necessarily mutually Asturum: Distribution of the dedications involving indigenous DN A and Classical Lenguas indoeuropeas yahoo dating with indigenous element B.
We see that it is a divinity that extends over multiple territories 2. Supra-Regional Cults and ethno-cultural entities, though it does not Supra-regional cults are defined by the appear- seem to be clearly linked to the Roman municipal ance of several items of the same DN in large ter- infrastructure. On the basis of its etymological ritorial segments, encompassing several geo- profile Prosperand the geographical graphic units such as natural regions, river basins, features of the areas where its dedicacies have etc.
In this category the dedications can be found been found, it could be considered to be of widely scattered, in quite distant locations, but autochthonous origin related to mountainous usually they constitute one or more primary focus- areas.
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It is a Figure 4 shows six cases of indigenous cults of cult based exclusively in the lower-middle basin of Celtic type at a supra-regional level which reflect the river Tajo,
Lenguas indoeuropeas yahoo dating a main focus in the Igaeditan- different territorial dispersion patterns: The dispersion pat- appearance of a secondary worship focus among tern shows a predominantly rural base because, the Turduli, with the consequent formal gap.
This deity has three main foci of worship: It shows two extensions: This indicates that this cult um, and in the south in the area of Lancia Oppi- transcended both pre-Roman ethnic units and dana. It is, therefore, a cult mainly related to the municipal or conventual Roman circumscriptions. Gallaeci Bracaribut also to the Lusitani Lan- Clearly, it is the cult with the greater geographical cienses Transcudani.
It is not linked to specific ethnic enti- Dedications to Munidis show a linear pattern in ties, because it is recorded
Lenguas indoeuropeas yahoo dating in the territory of north-south direction. His main focus of worship is Celtiberia and between Vettones and Turduli.
However, it recorded in Huelva on a pottery dish dated in the shows extensions in several directions: Some examples of supra-regional distribution of dedications involving DN names of Celtic stock. If this relationship were confirmed, several century BC, 3 the dispersion of the whole
Lenguas indoeuropeas yahoo dating facts could be inferred: However, an cally the entire Tajo valley.
Most to the west is extension of the cult is to be observed in the Olisipo, in the middle Libora near Talavera de la northwestern quadrant of the Peninsula, around Reina and most to the east Segontia Siguenza. This distribution could be farming and particularly mining activity. Following explained by the very function of the name, which its dispersion pattern, we
Lenguas indoeuropeas yahoo dating conclude that it seems to be a taboo-theonym De Bernardo in is a multi-ethnic worship with dedications scat- print-a possibly covering different deities.
It is interesting to note pattern along the
Lenguas indoeuropeas yahoo dating Mountain Range and the that, except in the case of the Cueva de la Griega upper valley of the river Duero; areas of basically Segoviathe dedications are linked to the urban Figure 5: Some examples of regional distribution of dedications involving indigenous DN of Celtic stock linked to Continental items.
In La Griega, on three dedications to the Matres in Andalusia are the contrary, the dedication appears in an isolated located in urban environments of basically Roman spot of natural character, though in a purely origin —Hispalis,
Lenguas indoeuropeas yahoo dating and Calpurniana—.
The dispersion again speaks for its multi-eth- features that distinguish them from the rest of nic character, since it is found in the territories of those we analysed: First, while most of the supra-regional DNN Dedications to Epona show a geographically examined keep in a significant spatial coherence, disjointed pattern, partly similar to that of Lugus.
In any population but were introduced by Rome Scher- case, it is a cult rooted in urban contexts, some- rer The lack of dedications in the western area of an immigrant involved in mining at Sierra More- of the Peninsula which, for several —not only na.
However, we think that the above-mentioned theonymic— features, we know to contain the geographical dislocation of its dedications impede oldest linguistic elements of Celtic origin De to focus its cult exclusively in Celtiberia.
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This idea Bernardo with further bibliography indi- is reinforced by the opinion of other scholars who, cates the relative modernity of its difussion.
On the one hand, its main focus is in to the pre-Roman period Maier54; the town of Clunia and its hinterland, from where it Hofeneder33, De Bernardo a, 94 ff. If spreads to the Ebro valley, in accordance with the we consider the proposal that the emergence
Lenguas indoeuropeas yahoo dating main route connecting the town with the continent the cult to Epona is a product of the intersection and Lenguas indoeuropeas yahoo dating Mediterranean.
Main · Videos; Dating direct affinity uk login lenguas indoeuropeas yahoo dating · pura academy dating sim cheats for computer · primi passi latino dating. However, it recorded in Huelva on a pottery dish dated in the shows extensions in Coloquio sobre Lenguas y Culturas Paleohispáni- cas (Barcelona, de Las unidades organizativas indígenas del área indoeuropea de Hispania.
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