The canyon is surrounded by the Sumidero Canyon National Parka federally protected natural "Parques nacionales arrecifales mexicanos yahoo dating" of Mexico which extends for 21, hectares 53, acres over four municipalities of the state of Chiapas. Most of the vegetation in the park is low- to medium-height deciduous rainforestwith small areas of mixed pine-oak forest and grassland.
The canyon and national park is the second most important tourist site in Chiapas, drawing mostly Mexican visitors who see the canyon from boats which embark on the river from Chiapa de Corzo. More importantly, the urban areas and logging industries upstream from the canyon have caused serious pollution problems, with up to tons of solid waste extracted from the Grijalva River each year.
The river then flows through Chiapas, including the km length of the canyon, from south to north, then on to Tabasco before it empties into the Usumacinta River. In addition to the Grijalva, there are other flows of water in the area in and around the canyon, many of which are seasonal. The canyon proper is deep and narrow, characterized by vertical walls.
As the gap changes direction as much as 90 degrees in places, it separates the Meseta de las Animas mesa in the west from the Meseta de Ixtapa mesa in the east. During the Mesocretac Periodthere was an Parques nacionales arrecifales mexicanos yahoo dating of ocean floor which formed much of the mountains of the area.
The interior of the canyon has thirty rapids, five waterfalls, three beaches, two freshwater springs and a cofferdam "Parques nacionales arrecifales mexicanos yahoo dating" meters wide. This cave gets its name from the filtration of magnesiumpotassium and other minerals which form colors on the walls, especially shades of pink.
It contains an image of the Virgin of Guadalupe inside usually surrounded by fresh flowers and burning candles left by visitors. The Cueva de Silencio "Cave of Silence" is so named because of a lack of echo or any other kind of resonance in its interior.
Despite its biological, ecological and cultural diversity, there have been few studies performed in the park area. For this reason, there is a lack of information about species, habitats and water flow.
There is also relatively little information about how human activities affect the park. These are hot and dry where airflow is blockedsemi-hot and humid, and hot and humid.
Other important families include the Orchidaceae and Euphorbiaceaeeach with 22 species, the Convolvulaceae family with 17 species, and the Cactaceae with 11 species.
These mostly come from the rainforest areas. The rainforest vegetation is mostly deciduousshedding leaves in the dry season. However, there are perennial rainforests, forests of pine and oak, grasslands mostly induced and areas with secondary vegetation. The three main vegetation classifications are low-height rainforest, medium-height rainforest as per the size of the treespine-oak forest and meadows.
It is mostly found in areas with basalt or granite rock and where there are lime deposits, covering an area of 11, hectares 28, acres in total. While many plants here loose leaves in the dry season, there are some that retain year-round. Maximum height of trees varies between 25 and 30 meters. The density of the tree cover in these areas is enough to lower temperatures on the ground in the summer rainy season due to the maximum foliage which occurs at this time.
The tree cover is composed of the following species: Under the tree cover, there is significant plant diversity, including palms and araceas. Epiphytes air plants are abundant as well, along Parques nacionales arrecifales mexicanos yahoo dating orchids, Bromeliaceae and cactus. Cactus are primarily found on the vertical walls of the canyon and belong to the Acanthocereus family.
In the s, tree area in a good state of conservation amounted to 3, hectares 9, acresor From tothis amount was reduced to 1, hectares 2, acresor 5. Many of the areas in good condition are broken up by disturbed areas. Most of the damage is due to illegal logging and the clearing of land for pasture or agriculture.
Many of these patches are less than one hectare in size, as they are located on small areas of flat land at altitudes between and 2, masl. The soils are rich in undecomposed plant matter which holds in moisture. These occupy a territory of 4, hectares 10, acres in the park. Tree heights extend from four to ten meters with some as high as 15 meters.
Non-tree species are not as common and mostly consist of succulent species such as AgaveOpuntiaStenocereus and Cephalocereus. Other important species include Alvaradoa amorphoidesBursera simarubaCeiba acuminateBursera bipinnataBursera excelsCochlospermum vitifoliumHaematoxylon brasilettoPiscidia piscipulaSwietenia humilisAcacia collinsii and Pseudobombax ellipticum.
Pine-oak forests exist in the northwest of the park in the highest altitudes, covering about 87 hectares acres. The most common species is the oak Quercus conspersaoften found mixed with the two kinds of rainforest found in the park. Air plants are common here as well as bromeliads, orchids and plants from the MaxillariaLycasteCattleya and Laelia groups.
Grassland is not naturally occurring but rather exists due to human activities such as farming and livestock raising. It is seen on the north and south sides of the canyon and is usually associated with secondary vegetation such as Tecoma stansGliricidia sepiumPlumeria rubra and Acacia collinsiioccupying an area of 6, hectares 16, acres in the park. However, "Parques nacionales arrecifales mexicanos yahoo dating" the federal park was established in the s, wildlife diversity has increased.
A study indicates species with four species of fish, 15 amphibians, birds, and 53 mammals. Between these two, there have been a number of other studies which also show the growth of the number of wildlife species in the park. Information about fish species is scarce but at least four protected species have been detected.
Birds are the most common type of animal in the park, with about species documented. Six of these species are threatened and 17 are subject to special protection. There have been 53 species of mammals detected recently in the park, of which two are considered threatened, two in danger and two subject to special protection.
The Sumidero Canyon National Park has its origins in a Chiapas state decree issued inwhich made the "Parques nacionales arrecifales mexicanos yahoo dating" around the canyon an ecological reserve to preserve its geology, history and wildlife and to allow for scientific study. The center of the park is the Sumidero Canyon and the Grijalva River that runs from south to north through it.
This lookout also has a restaurant. The most important conservation issue in the park is the contamination of the Grijalva Riverwhich passes through the Sumidero Canyon proper. The demand for living space has created an industry of illegal subdivisions which are then sold without the proper title to victims. The growth of these areas has led to land ownership disputes, loss of wild habitat and deforestation. Inthe federal and state government signed an accord to remove illegal human settlements Parques nacionales arrecifales mexicanos yahoo dating work to prevent further encroachment.
However, the situation has not been helped by the fact that there are disputes over the boundaries of the park as decreed in In addition to the illegal settlements, there are legal settlements and operations which affect the park. There are eight ejidos which border the parks and whose activities directly affect it: Many of these were started by human activity in or near the park such as one fire set on a nearby farm in May They exist legally because they had been there well before the park was established.
Much of the environment damage come from runoff from mining waste which winds up in the Grijalva River.