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The origin of bullying

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Bullying is the use of force, threat, or coercion to abuseintimidate or aggressively dominate others. The behavior is often repeated The origin of bullying habitual. One essential prerequisite is the perception, by the bully or by others, of an imbalance of social or physical power, which distinguishes bullying from conflict. Rationalizations of such behavior sometimes include differences of social class, race, religion, gender, sexual orientation, appearance, behavior, body language, personality, reputation, lineage, strength, size or ability.

Bullying can be defined in many different ways. The United Kingdom has no legal definition of bullying, [6] The origin of bullying some states in the United States have laws against it.

Bullying ranges from one-on-one, individual bullying through to group bullying called mobbingin which the bully may have one or more "lieutenants" who may seem to be willing to assist the primary bully in his or her bullying activities. Bullying in school and the workplace is also referred to as peer abuse.

Fuller has analyzed bullying in the context of rankism. A bullying culture can develop in any context in which humans interact with each other.

This includes schoolfamily, the workplace[10] home, and neighborhoods. The main platform for bullying is on social media websites. There is no universal definition of bullying, however, it is widely agreed upon that bullying is a subcategory of aggressive behavior characterized by the following three minimum criteria: The Norwegian researcher Dan Olweus [14] says bullying occurs when The origin of bullying person is "exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons".

He says negative actions occur "when a person intentionally inflicts injury or discomfort upon another person, through physical contact, through words or in other ways. Individual bullying can be classified into four types. Physical, verbal, and relational bullying are most prevalent in primary school and could also begin much earlier whilst continuing into later stages in individuals lives. It "The origin of bullying" stated that Cyber-bullying is more common in secondary school than in primary school.

Individual bullying tactics can be perpetrated by a single person against a The origin of bullying or targets. This is any bullying that hurts someone's body or damages their possessions. Stealing, shoving, hitting, fighting, and destroying property all are types of physical bullying. Physical bullying is rarely the first form of bullying that a target will experience. Often bullying will begin in a different form and later progress to physical violence. In physical bullying the main weapon the bully uses is their body when attacking their target.

Sometimes groups of young adults will target and alienate a peer because of some adolescent prejudice. This can quickly lead to a situation where they are being taunted, tortured, and beaten-up by their classmates. Physical bullying will often escalate over time, and can lead to a tragic ending, and therefore must be stopped The origin of bullying to prevent any further escalation.

This is any bullying that is conducted by speaking. Calling names, spreading rumors, threatening somebody, and making fun of others are all forms of verbal bullying. Verbal bullying is one of the most common types of bullying.

Origins of Bullying. The desire...

In verbal bullying the main weapon the bully uses is their voice. In many cases, verbal bullying is the province of girls. Girls are more subtle and can be more devastatingin general, than boys.

Girls use verbal bullying, as well as social exclusion techniques, to dominate and control other individuals and show their superiority and power.

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However, there are also many boys with subtlety enough to use verbal techniques for domination, and who are practiced in using words when they want to avoid the trouble that can come with The origin of bullying bullying someone else. This is any bullying that is done with the intent to hurt somebody's reputation or social standing which can also link in with The origin of bullying techniques included in physical and verbal bullying.

Relational Bullying is a form of bullying common amongst youth, but particularly upon girls. Relational bullying can be used as a tool by bullies to both improve their social standing and control others. Unlike physical bullying which is obvious, relational bullying is not overt and can continue for a long time without being noticed.

Cyber bullying is the use of technology to harass, threaten, embarrass, or target another person. When an adult is involved, it may meet the definition of cyber-harassment or cyberstalkinga crime that can have legal consequences and involve jail time. Collective bullying tactics are employed by more than one individual against a target or targets.

Trolling behavior on social media, although generally assumed to be individual in nature by the casual reader, is sometime organized efforts by sponsored astroturfers. Mobbing refers to the bullying of an individual by a group, in any context, such as a familypeer groupschoolworkplaceneighborhoodcommunityor online.

Bullying is the use of...

Studies have shown that envy and resentment may be motives for bullying. Because they think too highly of themselves, they are frequently offended by the criticisms and lack of deference of other people, and react to this disrespect with violence and insults.

Researchers have identified other risk factors such as depression [30] and personality disorders[31] as well as quickness to anger and use of force, addiction to aggressive behaviors, mistaking others' actions as hostile, concern with preserving self-imageand engaging in obsessive or rigid actions.

Bullying may also result from a genetic predisposition or a brain abnormality in the bully. Cook says that "a typical bully has trouble resolving problems with others and also has trouble academically.

Contrarily, some researchers have suggested that some bullies are psychologically strongest and have high social standing among their peers, while their targets are emotionally distressed and socially marginalized. Research indicates that adults who bully have authoritarian personalities, combined with a strong need to control or dominate.

Often, bullying takes place in the presence of a large group of relatively uninvolved bystanders. In many cases, it is the bully's ability to create the illusion that he or she has the support The origin of bullying the majority present that instills the fear of "speaking out" in protestation of the bullying activities being observed by the group.

Unless the "bully mentality" is effectively challenged in any given group in its early stages, it often becomes an accepted, or supported, norm The origin of bullying the group. Unless action is taken, a " culture of bullying " is often perpetuated within a group for months, years, or longer.

Bystanders who have been able to establish their own "friendship group" or "support group" have been found to be far more likely to opt to speak out against bullying behavior than those who have not. In addition to communication of clear expectations that bystanders should intervene and increasing individual self-efficacy, there is growing research that suggests interventions should build on the foundation that bullying is morally wrong.

Among adults, being a bystander to workplace bullying was linked to depression, particularly in women.

However, understanding the origins of...

Cook says The origin of bullying "A typical victim is likely to be aggressive, lack social skills, think negative thoughts, experience difficulties in solving social problems, come from a negative family, school and community environments and be noticeably rejected and isolated by peers".

They may also have physical characteristics that make them easier targets for bullies such as being overweight or having some type of physical deformity.

Boys are more likely to be victims of physical bullying while "The origin of bullying" are more likely to be bullied indirectly. The results of a meta-analysis conducted by Cook and published by the American Psychological Association in concluded the main risk factors for children and adolescents being bullied, and also for becoming bullies, are the lack of social problem-solving skills.

Children who are bullied often show physical or emotional signs, such as: Mona O'Moore of the Anti-Bullying Centre at Trinity The origin of bullying in Dublin, has written, "There is a growing body of research which indicates that individuals, whether child or adult, who are persistently subjected to abusive behavior are at risk of stress related illness which can sometimes lead to suicide".

Bullying can cause lonelinessdepressionanxietylead to low self-esteem and increased susceptibility to illness. Even though there is evidence that bullying increases the risk of suicide, bullying alone does not cause suicide.

Depression is one of the main reasons why kids who are bullied die by suicide. When someone feels unsupported by his or her family or friends, it can make the situation much worse for the victim.

In a self-report study completed in New York by 9th through 12th graders, victims of bullying reported more depressive symptoms and psychological distress than those who did not experience bullying. Victims and victim-bullies are associated with a higher risk of suicide attempts. The place where youth The origin of bullying also appears to differentiate their bullying experiences such that those living in more urban areas who reported both being bullied and bullying others appear to show higher risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts.

This can be related to the anonymity behind social media. The study emphasizes the importance of The origin of bullying program-collaborations in schools to have programs and anti-bullying interventions in place to prevent and properly intervene when it occurs.

While some people find it very easy to ignore a bully, others may find it very difficult and reach a breaking point. There have been cases of apparent bullying suicides that have been reported closely by the media. Over 16 percent of students seriously consider suicide, 13 percent create a plan, and 8 percent have made a serious attempt. Some have argued that bullying can teach life lessons and instill strength. Helene Guldberg, a child development academic, sparked controversy when she argued that being a target of bullying can teach a child "how to manage disputes and boost their ability to interact with others", and that teachers should not intervene, but leave children to respond to the bullying themselves.

The teaching of such anti-bullying coping skills to "would-be-targets" [ not in citation given ] and to others has been found to be an effective long term means of reducing bullying incidence rates and a valuable skill-set for individuals. Research on the dark triad narcissismMachiavellianism and psychopathy indicate a correlation with bullying as part of evidence of the aversive nature of those The origin of bullying. Bullying is abusive social interaction between peers which can include aggression, harassment, and violence.

Bullying is typically repetitive and enacted by those who are in a position of power over the victim.