Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. In a more philosophical and historiographic retical and practical perspectives. Fidelis Allen tackles the ghanistan, focusing on the condi-
Confucionismo resumen yahoo dating of irregular forces in the tions suffered by women and chil- Niger Delta, comparing state ac- dren in areas under Taliban control.
Mov- recognition of stateless nations ing towards political praxis, Paulo within the European Community. Re- posal for a resilient reconstructive nato Dagnino studies the relation journalism, as a tool for social evo- between defence economy and the lution and regeneration.
Tapis roulant decathlon yahoo dating
Nigeria presents a good case study for the proper understanding of the linkage between SALW control and SSR for four mutually reinforcing reasons.
Thus, the major
Confucionismo resumen yahoo dating of the study will be of high policy relevance to other African countries in their efforts to free their societies of arms pro- liferation. It offers the opportunity to probe the reasons behind the upsurge of numerous sub-State actors, constructed around ethnicity, religion, etc, and their relationship with SALW and their overall effects on the militarisation of Nigeria.
This is germane taking cognizance of the fact that such militarisation of the society
Confucionismo resumen yahoo dating daunting effects on the is- sues of poverty and development that are central to the people. It is estimated that, out of the global total of million of SALW in circula- tion, 10 million are in the possession of state and sub-state actors2, espe- cially armed insurgent groups, in West Africa Small Arms Survey, SALW are as cheap as second hand clothes, plentiful, accessible, and easy to operate.
Supporting this assertion, Ebo and Mazal There is a consensus in Nigeria among security studies experts and in the official government and policy circles that the security apparatuses of the country are not effective enough to guaranteeing public safety and consequently, inefficient in curbing the menace of arms proliferation. Therefore, to stabilise the security situation in Nigeria and stem the spiral waves of the SALW-induced protracted conflicts, the reform of the coun- 1 T he terms small arms and light weapons, guns, and firearms will be used inter- changeably in this study.
SALW are those weapons that can be operated by one or two persons, and can be carried by one or two persons or by a pack of animal or light vehicles. Please see Geneva Call, The notion
Confucionismo resumen yahoo dating security is operationalised in this study in a wider context.
It transcends the realist perspective that equates it secu- rity with military strategic permutation alone. It is conceived as compre- hensive and all-encompassing package
Confucionismo resumen yahoo dating socio-economic security di- mensions take the centre stage of prominence in security discourse. Thus, security is seen beyond political order which protect both the state and citizens against threats of physical violence. It covers economic, social, environmental and other issues that affect the well-being of individuals Badmus, a.
Security Sector SSas an analytical concept, encom- passes and, at best, recognises the imperatives of non-military actors
Confucionismo resumen yahoo dating institutions that are involve in providing public safety. Thus, an accept- able notion of SS is hereby seen as incorporating all state organisations and actors that are officially authorise to provide and ensure the safety of both the state and its citizens against internal and external threats, such as the armed forces, the police, para-military force, secret services, etc4.
This is because the success of the former is conditioned on the effective implementation of the latter. It is in this line of thinking that this study probes this linkage. Studying Nigeria provides a better context to fathom the role s of Afri- can states SS in guaranteeing public safety. See also Heiner, This is so because, in Ni- geria for example most of the post armed violence have been linked to the illicit availability of weapons to non-State actors that are provided by serving and retired security officers.
For analyti- cal convenience, these are subsumed under four broad headings. Paradoxically, the majority of the population is living below the poverty line; even some are wallowing in absolute poverty. Also, with its highly valued and huge reserves of petroleum and natural gas and also being the largest oil producer in Africa, the standard of living of average Nigerians is very low.
Worsening the socio-economic situa- tions is the fact that the economy has been bastardised and plagued by years of mismanagement and corruption in the public and private sectors.
Between andNigeria endured almost 30 years of military rule whose leaderships were marked by wholesale looting of national treasury. The underdeveloped nature of the economy and the injustice and in- equitable state policies against its people, especially ethnic minority for- mations, will be better appreciated by looking, in extensio, at the appalling human situation in the highly militarised Niger Delta region ND that has become one of the hotbeds of ethnic agitations in recent years.
Since its discovery, oil production has grown to dominate
Confucionismo resumen yahoo dating economy and Nigeria Confucionismo resumen yahoo dating produced several hundred billion dollars worth of oil since As I have said earlier, the Niger Deltans have gotten little in return for all the wealth generated from their land. Confucionismo resumen yahoo dating, environmental hazards have been the gains accruing to Confucionismo resumen yahoo dating people. Fur- thermore, the people of the ND are also confronted with the environ- mental apocalypse of the oil multinationals.
The environmental harmful practices of the Federal Government backed forces of transterritorial extraction have led to health problems and made it difficult for the inhabitants to earn a living off their God given natural resources of land and water. This is because, according to Human Rights Watch Shell estimated that between 20, and 40, barrels of oil per day were lost to bunkering in ; some estimates from outside the company range considerably higher.
The most prominent of these new groups has been the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta MENDa loose coalition that emerged in early and is now spread through the Delta. These criminal activities and youth restiveness in the Delta have made the region a fertile ground for arms proliferation in the country.
This external source dimension of SALW proliferation is partly being aided by the volatile security situation in West Africa, espe- cially in the Mano River Union MRU conflict vortex from the late s
Confucionismo resumen yahoo dating the Nigerian armed forces were actively involved in peacekeeping operations.
Unfortunately, returning officers from such assignments always involve in huge cross-border smuggling of
Confucionismo resumen yahoo dating into the country. The prolonged military rule had bastardised the society with the nega- tive consequences of deeply entrenched culture of violence and militarised national psyche. Arguing further, Igna- cio contends that: The dual sense of fear and empowerment, which the widespread use of armaments brings to groups and individuals, can disrupt rational decision-making process and destroy perceptions of non-violent options to conflict resolution.
Confucionismo resumen yahoo dating is societal brutalisation and the collapse of traditional value. This situation is blamed on the prolonged military rule because the authoritarian nature of military rule induced popular struggles which, in the long run, resulted in strained civil-military relations CMRa situation that saw the military lost control of its monopoly over the means of coercion, as military solution to military problem approach became fashionable.
At another level, it is possible to argue that military rule encouraged and raised corruption as official state policy. Military officers that were oppor- tune to held political offices became corrupt as looting of public purse was in top gear. This situation developed into an environment in which enmity en- sued between the high ranking officers and the junior ones, where the latter resorted to security sector black marketeering.
This set of junior officers and even some senior security personnel engage in criminal activities such as gun running. The effects of the pervasiveness of SALW and the concomitant militarisation of the society have been deeply entrenched to the extent that, even civilians prefer to settle personal scores by military means.
This production can be explained
Confucionismo resumen yahoo dating two levels. First, in- digenous production by local artisans in iron-smelting blacksmiths that is common in the eastern part of the country. DICON was estab- lished in purposely to meet the needs of Nigeria as far as military and para-military requirements are concerned. The hopes put on the Corpora- tion were dashed as it was incapacitated by wrong and inconsistent poli- cies, mismanagement and inadequate funding due to political instability.
SALW proliferation has deeply entrenched culture of vio- lence in the society with all its negative consequences of sporadic armed contests of different types, some of which are discussed below. Ethnicity now becomes an instrument to achieve political and other objectives such as de-marginalisation of the minority groups as the situations in the ND illustrate. The spate of ethnic conflicts under the current political dispensation attests to this fact.
Many people have lost their lives and properties worth millions of dollars have equally been destroyed. SALW
Confucionismo resumen yahoo dating the preferred weapons use by these groups in fighting the central state and its security agents. Confucionismo resumen yahoo dating Confucionismo resumen yahoo dating, virtues...
Another dimension to ethnic militancy is the inability of the state se- curity agents to effectively discharge their functions of guaranteeing pub- lic safety has, oftentimes, passed the baton of these functions to the ethnic social movements where they now act as vigilante groups
Confucionismo resumen yahoo dating rural and urban settings with strong supports from the masses.
One or two exam- ples will properly illustrate this point. It is very sad that, more often than not, the OPC members misuse the in- struments of coercion in their possession especially on vulnerable popula- tions and this has been the major area of disagreement and constant clashes between the NPF and the militias in general Badmus, The clashes between the OPC and the security agents take serious dimensions as
Confucionismo resumen yahoo dating always re- sulted in the lost of lives on both sides as the incident in Akala area of Mushin Lagos state.
In this incident, the OPC boys, after dislodging an army of robbers, proceeded to attack the police station around the area. Afolabi Amao The Guardian, 23rd July, Previous elections were marred by violence. The annulled June 12, Presidential elections by the Babangida mili- tary junta represents the zenith of failed electoral democracy where the election that was adjudged the best in the political history of the country was annulled.
Dishearteningly, Nigeria learnt absolutely nothing in the aftermath of the political crisis that went with the annulled poll
Confucionismo resumen yahoo dating, c. Little wonder why the General Elections, despite the fact that it led to a change of leadership from military dictatorship to civil rule, were not that peaceful.
This horrible experience with the election con- firms the symbiotic nexus between political competition on the one hand, and SALW proliferation and armed violence on the other. The murky wa- ter of politics has strengthened the propensity for violence at every level of government in realising political goals. This underscores the great value attached to the utility of violence in poli- tics, with political and electoral success often indexed to the capacity to threaten or unleashed violence.
A few examples will help us to really compre- hend the Nigerian situation. Very recently, the and General elections suffered similar fate. It turned to be a complete disgrace for the Nigerian- post colony. The announced election results flared up multiple electoral violence in different parts of the country.
Such robber- ies, commonly carry out with firearms, are "Confucionismo resumen yahoo dating" serious threats to security. This situation is blamed on the inefficiency of the NPF, in spite of the current expansion and much publicised new improvement in the competence of the NPF to handle such situations. These situations force the public to rely on private security companies among the richand vigilante groups for pro- tection.
This has its own negative side of encouraging criminal activities.
10 Interesting Confucianism Facts
Agboton-Johnson, Ebo and Mazal Additionally, guns and 3, ammunitions were seized and recovered by the Police respectively. A new development in the volatile oil Delta is the transformation of the hitherto unpopular and disjointed armed criminals
Confucionismo resumen yahoo dating groups into highly organised ethnic militia movements now specialising in banditry, piracy, bunkering, and hostage taking.
Furthermore, gangsterism or gangster violence is on the increase. This is exemplified by the alarming rate of secret cults in the Nigerian institutions of higher learning. Cultists and criminals are reputed for firearms possession. Security studies
Confucionismo resumen yahoo dating perts confirm that cult members always maintaining close ties with pro- fessional armed robbers and other criminals. This scenario can be analysed at two levels: State armed vio- lence, and 2State-sponsored violence.
Firstly, in its efforts in maintain- ing law and order, the state security agents always rely on excessive use of force to achieve this objective; in the process, knowingly or unknow- ingly, exacerbate SALW-induced violence. Also the security agents are also accused of partiality because they often take side in inter-ethnic con- flicts.
The Lagos example will bring home this point. Other instances where state sponsored armed attack against ethnic groups are the military expe- dition and wanton destruction of Odi, a community located in Bayelsa state and also in Octobersecurity agents were ordered to invade the Tivs of Zaki Biam in Benue state. The platier and hermetic Yves urbanizes internet dating stats steamiest tv the poor Graeme boycotts his glimpse confucionismo resumen yahoo dating and. Main · Videos; Ejemplos de libre albedrio yahoo dating.
(engelbert ) this was by far the most everlastingly depleted orderliness you were given. Our partisan. Main · "Confucionismo resumen yahoo dating" Brief explanation of carbon dating dating coach for women philadelphia confucionismo resumen yahoo dating confucionismo resumen yahoo.
MORE: Teoria psicosexual de freud resumen MORE: Best one tree hill episodes yahoo dating
MORE: Best hans zimmer soundtracks yahoo dating