Shelf life is the length of time that a commodity may be stored without becoming unfit for "Shelf life hookup of foods labuza," consumption, or sale. It applies to cosmeticsfoods and beveragesmedical devicesmedicinesexplosivespharmaceutical drugschemicalstiresbatteries and many other perishable items. In some regions, an advisory best beforemandatory use by or freshness date is required on packaged perishable foods. The concept of expiration date is related but legally distinct in some jurisdictions.
Shelf life is the recommended maximum time for which products or fresh harvested produce can be stored, during which the defined quality of a specified proportion of the goods remains acceptable under expected or specified conditions of distribution, storage and display.
If the cans look okay, they are safe to use. Discard cans that are dented, rusted, or swollen. High-acid canned foods tomatoes, fruits will keep their best quality for 12 to 18 months; low-acid canned foods meats, vegetables for 2 to 5 years. Most food is still edible after the expiration date. In most food stores, waste is minimized by using stock rotationwhich involves moving products with the earliest sell by date from the warehouse to the sales area, and then to the front of the shelf, so that most shoppers will pick them up first and thus they are likely to be sold before the end of their shelf life.
Some stores can be fined for selling out of date products; most Shelf life hookup of foods labuza not all would have to mark such products down as wastedresulting in a financial loss. Shelf life depends on the degradation mechanism of the specific product.
Most can be influenced by several factors: Product quality is often mathematically modelled around a parameter concentration of a chemical compound, a microbiological index, or moisture content. For some foods, health issues are important in determining shelf life. Bacterial contaminants are ubiquitous, and foods left unused too long will often be contaminated by substantial amounts of bacterial colonies and become dangerous to eat, leading to food poisoning.
However, shelf life alone is not an accurate indicator of how long the food can safely be stored. For example, pasteurized milk can remain fresh for five days after its sell-by date if it is refrigerated properly. However, improper storage of milk may result in Shelf life hookup of foods labuza contamination or spoilage before the expiration date.
The expiration date of pharmaceuticals specifies the date the manufacturer guarantees the full potency and safety of a drug.
Most medications continue to be effective and safe for a time after the expiration date. A rare exception is a case of renal tubular acidosis purportedly caused by expired tetracycline.
Food and Drug Administration covered over drugs, prescription and over-the-counter. Joel Davis, a former FDA expiration-date compliance chief, said that with a handful of exceptions - notably nitroglycerin, insulin and some liquid antibiotics - most expired drugs are probably effective. Shelf life is not significantly studied during drug development [ dubious — discuss ]and drug manufacturers have economic and liability incentives to specify shorter shelf lives so that consumers are encouraged to discard and repurchase products.
One criticism is that the U. The SLEP and FDA signed a memorandum that scientific data could not be shared with the public, public health departments, other government agencies, and drug manufacturers. Preservatives and antioxidants may be incorporated into some food and drug products to extend their shelf life. Shelf-life is not to be confused with service-life defined as, A general term used to quantify the average or standard life expectancy of an item or equipment while in use. When a shelf-life item is unpacked and introduced to mission requirements, installed into intended application, or merely left in storage, placed in pre-expended bins, or held as bench stockshelf-life management stops and service life begins.
Shelf life is often specified in conjunction with a specific product, package, and distribution system. Nearly all chemical reactions can occur at normal temperatures although different reactions proceed at different rates. However most reactions are accelerated by high temperatures, and the degradation of foods and pharmaceuticals is no exception.
The same applies to the breakdown of many chemical explosives into more unstable compounds. Old explosives are thus more dangerous i. Rubber products also degrade as sulphur bonds induced during vulcanization revert; this is why old rubber bands and other rubber products soften and get crispy, and lose their elasticity as they age. However, as with many rules of thumb, there are many caveats and exceptions. It is often applied in shelf life estimation, sometimes wrongly. This is mathematically incorrect if the rule was precisely accurate the required temperature increase would be about The same is true, up to a point, of the chemical reactions of living things.
They are usually catalyzed by enzymes which change reaction rates, but with no variation in catalytic action, the rule of thumb is still mostly applicable. In the case of bacteria and fungithe reactions needed to feed and reproduce speed up at higher temperatures, up to the point that the proteins and other compounds in their cells themselves begin to break down, or denatureso quickly that they cannot be replaced.
This is why high temperatures kill bacteria and other micro-organisms: On the other hand, 'elevated' temperatures short of these result in increased growth and reproduction; if the organism is harmful, perhaps to dangerous levels. Just as temperature increases speed up reactions, temperature decreases reduce them. Therefore, to make explosives stable for longer periods, or to keep rubber bands springy, or to force bacteria to slow down their growth, they can be cooled.
That is why shelf life is generally extended by temperature control: Since such storing of such goods is
Shelf life hookup of foods labuza in nature and shelf life is dependent on the temperature controlled environment, they are also referred to as cargo even when in special storage to emphasize the inherent time-temperature sensitivity matrix. Temperature data loggers and time temperature indicators can record the temperature history of a shipment to help estimate their remaining shelf life.
According to the USDA"foods kept frozen continuously are safe indefinitely. Passive barrier packaging can often help control or extend shelf
Shelf life hookup of foods labuza by blocking the transmission of deleterious substances, like moisture or oxygen, across the barrier.
When oxidation is the primary concern, packaging with a low oxygen transmission rate and the use of oxygen absorbers can help extend the shelf life. Produce and other products with respiration often require packaging with controlled barrier properties.
The use of a modified atmosphere in the package can extend the shelf life
Shelf life hookup of foods labuza some products. According to former UK minister Hilary Bennthe use by date and sell by dates are old technologies that are outdated and should "Shelf life hookup of foods labuza" replaced by other solutions or disposed of altogether. The guide sets out what items must be labelled and the format of the date.
However, there is no requirement that the year be in four digits. In Hong Kong, prepackaged food which from the microbiological point of Shelf life hookup of foods labuza is highly perishable and is therefore likely after a short period to constitute an immediate danger to human health, are required to use the 'Use by' label instead of the 'Best before' label. Examples include pasteurised fresh milk, packed egg and ham sandwiches, etc.
Sale of expired food products, per seis lightly regulated in the US. Some states restrict or forbid the sale of expired products, require expiration dates on all perishable products, or both, while other states do not. After losing an expensive lawsuit, one pharmacy chain — CVS — implemented a system that causes its registers to recognize expired products and avert their sale.
Voluntary industry guidelines announced in from the Grocery Manufacturers Association and the Food Marketing Institute recommend using only "best if used by" or "use by", to avoid confusion. The Food and Drug Administrationwhich regulates packaged foods and drugs, only requires a use-by, or expiration, date on infant formula and some baby foods, because formula must contain a certain quantity of each nutrient as described on the label. There are items in the Department of Defense DoD and the Federal Supply System that require special handling due to certain deteriorative characteristics.