Gender is generally conceived as a set of characteristics or traits that are associated with a certain biological sex male or female. In non-western countries, gender is not always conceived as binaryor strictly linked to biological sex.
As a result, in some cultures there are thirdfourth,  fifth  or "some"  genders. The characteristics that generally define gender are referred to as masculine or feminine.
The formation of gender is controversial in many scientific fields, including psychology. Specifically, researchers and theorists take different perspectives on how much of gender is due to biological, neurochemical, and evolutionary factors natureor is the result of culture and socialization nurture. This is known as Psychology chapter 4 gender and sexuality nature versus nurture debate.
The subfields of psychology note specific differences in the traits of each gender, based on their perspective of the issue on the nature versus nurture debate. The study of gender took off in the s. During this time period, academic works were published reflecting the changing views of researchers towards gender studies.
Some of these works included textbooks, as they were an important way that information was compiled and made sense of the new field. In Women and sex roles: A social psychological perspective was published, one of the first textbooks on the psychology behind women and sex roles.
Other influential academic works focused on the development of gender. InThe Development of Sex Differences was published. Man and Woman, Boy and Girlby John Money was published inreporting findings of research done with intersex subjects.
The book proposed that the social environment a child grows up in is more important in determining gender than the genetic factors he or she inherits. In recent years, the majority of Dr. In The Psychology of Sex Differences was published.
It said that men and women behave more similarly than had been previously supposed. They also proposed that children have much power over what gender role they grow into, whether by choosing which parent to imitate, or doing activities such as playing with action figures or dolls. Biological differentiation is Psychology chapter 4 gender and sexuality in determining differences in males and females. Males have two different sex chromosomesan X and a Y.
Females have two X chromosomes. The Y chromosome is what determines sexual differentiation. If the Y chromosome is present, growth is along male lines. The SRY is a specific part of the Y chromosome which is the sex-determining gene region of the chromosome. This is what is responsible for the differentiation between male and females.
Testosterone helps differentiate gender by increasing the likelihood of male patterns of behavior. It has effects on the central nervous system that trigger these behaviors.
Parts of the SRY and specific parts of the Y chromosome could also possibly influence different gender behaviors. Some critique this approach because it leaves little room for sexual expression and gender because it claims both are dependent on biological makeup.
Biological explanations of gender and sexual differences have been correlated to the work done by Charles Darwin regarding evolution. He suggested that just as wild animals and plants had physiological differences between sexes, humans did as well. These parallels include genetic and hormonal factors that create different individuals, with the main difference being the reproductive function. The brain controls behavior by individuals, but it is influenced by genes, hormones and evolution.
Evidence has shown that the ways boys and girls become men and women is different, and that there are variations between the individuals of each sex. Okayama University in Japan did a study investigating the biological nature of gender identity disorder.
The researchers looked at five different sex related hormones and whether or not they increased the chances of an individual being a transsexual.
Their research did not find a significant in the distribution of the examined genes. The results currently can not provide evidence that the different genetic variants of sex hormone genes influence an individual to MTF or FTM transsexualism. Sex-related differences of cognitive functioning is questioned in research done on the areas of perceptionattentionreasoningthinkingproblem solvingPsychology chapter 4 gender and sexualitylearninglanguage and emotion.
These test basic individual abilities rather than complex combination of abilities needed to solve real life problems. Those differences found are attributed to both social and biological factors.