A very large body of social science research going back decades has documented the vital and unique role of mothers and of fathers in childhood development. These studies have also demonstrated the negative psychological, educational, and social effects on children who have been deprived of growing up in a home with both biological parents who are married to each other. A very brief summary of findings on the mothers' unique and crucial role in childhood development would include these points:.
Clinical experience would suggest that motherlessness, while not studied as extensively as fatherlessness, causes even greater damage a child, because the role of the mother is so crucial in establishing a child's ability to trust and to feel safe in relationships.
The extensive research on the "College hookup gay parents studying toddlers" psychological, academic, and social problems in youth raised in fatherless families demonstrates the importance of the presence of the father in the home for healthy childhood development. Let us look, then, at some of the larger, well-designed studies that have shown the risks experienced by children who were deprived of growing up in a home with both biological parents who were married to each other.
How can one reconcile these significant findings with the widely publicized studies showing no harmful effects to children who have, or have lived with, lesbian or gay parents? For example, inthe American Psychological Association APA issued an official brief on lesbian and gay parenting, which included this assertion: Marks stated that this strong assertion made by the APA was not empirically warranted.
Twenty-six of 59 APA studies on same-sex parenting had no heterosexual comparison groups.
And in comparison studies, single mothers were often used as the heterosexual comparison group. In none of the 59 published studies were the definitive claims substantiated.
The author recommended further research. Major flaws exist in the vast majority of studies published before on this subject Marks including the fact that they relied upon small, nonrepresentative samples that are not representative of children in typical homosexual families in the United States.
Two major studies, published by Gartrell and Bos and Biblarz and Staceyare often cited by gay activists and extensively in the media. These studies claim that no psychological damage occurs to children who were deliberately deprived of the benefits of gender complementarity in a home with a father and a mother.
The article by Gartrell and Bos relies solely on self-reports of the lesbian mothers who were aware of the political agenda behind the study. Similarly, in the research done by Biblarz and Stacey, in 31 of the 33 studies of two-parent families, it was the parents who provided the data, which consisted of subjective judgments. As with the Gartrell and Bos study, this created a social desirability bias, because the lesbian parents knew full well why the study was being done.
In a analysis Sullins cstudies, which recruited samples of children in same-sex unions, showed that The evidence suggested strong bias resulting in false positive outcomes for parent-reported measures in recruited samples of same-sex parents.
An objective examination of social science research into how families function reveals clearly that children do best when raised by both a mother and a father and fully supports this statement by the former Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger when he headed the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith:.
They would be deprived of the experience of either fatherhood or motherhood. Allowing children to be adopted by persons living in such unions would actually mean doing violence to these children, in the sense that the condition of dependency would be used to place them in an environment that is not conducive to their full human development.
Trained in psychiatry at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania and the Philadelphia Child Guidance Center, he participated in cognitive therapy research with Aaron T.
National Center for Biotechnology College hookup gay parents studying toddlersU. Journal List Linacre Q v. November, ; 82 4: Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Revised version used with permission http: A very brief summary of findings on the mothers' unique and crucial role in childhood development would include these points: Infants and toddlers prefer their mothers to their fathers when they seek solace or relief from hunger, fear, sickness, or some other distress; 2.
Mothers tend to be more soothing; 3. Mothers are more responsive to the distinctive cries of infants: They are also better than fathers at detecting their children's emotions by looking at their faces, postures, and gestures. Not surprisingly, then, 5. Kobak Clinical experience would suggest that motherlessness, while not studied as extensively as fatherlessness, causes even greater damage to a child, because the role of the mother is so crucial in establishing a child's ability to trust and to feel safe in relationships.
Fathers also bring an array of College hookup gay parents studying toddlers talents to the parenting enterprise.
Fathers excel when it comes to providing discipline and play and challenging their children to embrace life's challenges; 2. Fathers provide essential role models for boys; A father's presence in the home protects a child from fear and strengthens a child's ability to feel safe.
A Canadian study Allenwhich analyzed data from a very large population-based sample, revealed that the children of gay and lesbian couples are only about 65 percent as likely to have graduated from high school as are the children of married, opposite-sex couples. The girls are more apt to struggle academically than the boys.
Three key findings stood out in this study: A study of primary school children in Australia Sarantakos compared the social and educational development of 58 children living in married families, 58 living with cohabiting heterosexuals, and 58 living in homosexual unions. The authors found that married couples offer the best environment for a child's social and educational development, followed by cohabiting heterosexual couples and lastly by homosexual couples.
A study Sirota of 68 women with gay or bisexual fathers and 68 women with heterosexual fathers found a statistically significant difference between the two groups.
The women whose average age College hookup gay parents studying toddlers both groups was 29 with gay or bisexual fathers had difficulty with adult attachment issues in three areas: The study was based on a large, nationally representative, and random survey of school-age children. In a re-examination of a study by Rosenfeld Allen et al. This difference is statistically significant at the 1 percent level.
A ground-breaking study from the University of Texas at Austin Regnerus found that young-adult children ages 18—39 of parents who had same-sex relationships before the subjects had reached the age of "College hookup gay parents studying toddlers" were more likely to suffer from a broad range of emotional and social problems. The study is noteworthy for several reasons: The children of lesbians and gays fared worse than those in intact heterosexual families on 77 of the 80 outcome measures.
Exceptions related only to the voting habits of children with gay fathers, and alcohol use by children of lesbian mothers. In recent years, married or cohabiting gay and lesbian couples have acquired children through artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization.
Research published in Marquardt et al. Men in gay unions are now also seeking biologically related children through the use of surrogate mothers. A study of children conceived through surrogate mothers by Golombok et al. The children were evaluated at ages 3, 7, and The study demonstrated that children gestated by a surrogate had higher adjustment difficulties at age 7 than the other children.
The authors concluded that the absence of a gestational connection to the mother may be problematic for children. In a study Sullins a using a representative sample ofchildren, including with same-sex parents, from the US National Health Interview Survey, emotional problems were over twice as prevalent minimum risk ratio RR 2. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder was more than twice RR 2. An objective examination of social science research into how families function reveals clearly that children do best when raised by both a mother and a father and fully supports this statement by the former Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger when he headed the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith: Biographical Note Richard Fitzgibbons, M.
High school graduation rates among children of same sex-households. Review of Economics of the Household Nontraditional families and childhood progress through school: A comment on Rosenfeld. How does the gender of parents matter?
Journal of Marriage and Family US national longitudinal lesbian family study: Psychological adjustment of year-old adolescents. How does it make a difference?
Perspectives of adults with lesbian, gay, and bisexual parents. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry Children born through reproductive donation: A longitudinal study of psychological adjustment.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry The emotional dynamics of disruptions in attachment relationships: Implications for theory, research, and clinical intervention. Same-sex parenting and children's outcomes: A closer examination of the American Psychological Association's brief on lesbian and gay parenting. Social Science Research A new study of young adults conceived through sperm donation. Institute for American Values. Same-sex parent families and children's academic achievement.
How different are the adult children of parents who have same-sex relationships? Findings from the New Family Structures Study. Children in three contexts. British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research 6: Bias in recruited sample research on children with same-sex parents using the "College hookup gay parents studying toddlers" and difficulties questionnaire SDQ.
Journal of Scientific Research and Reports 5 5: Adult attachment style dimensions in women with gay or bisexual fathers.