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opinion

In the United States, despite the efforts of equality proponents, income inequality persists among races [1] and ethnicities. When the Civil Rights Act of was passed, it became illegal for employers to discriminate based on race; [3] however, income disparities have not flattened out.

Asian workers' median wage was about percent that of white workers. Wages from the labor market are the primary source of income for most families in America, [5] and income is a socio-demographic status indicator that is important in understanding the building of wealth. The documented history of the Racial Wage Gap in the United States goes back before the Civil Rights Act, where many modern causes of racial wage inequity, such as educational disparities and discrimination, stem from were even more prevalent.

Simultaneously, the same schools saw a discrepancy in school time, with white schools in sessions for days on average, compared to days on average for black schools. However, aside from statistics of wage discrepancy between black individuals and their white counterparts, much is still unknown of wage inequity due to a lack of literature with solid empirical data to link data with an accurate model of wage Asian men white men. Following urban-dominated studies and shifting research based on evolved conceptual and study driven thinking, sociologists determined that the racial composition of a local population means for a key element in racial wage Asian men white men. Among other factors, studies performed by Leslie Mcall [9] indicate immigration population density as one of the leading factors in racial wage inequality.

While black immigrant earnings do not deviate from the already substandard average earnings, numbers on Hispanic and Asian immigrant earnings suggest more extensive negative effects, especially in areas of high immigration density. Hispanic and Asian women, in particular, are shown to be most affected; Hispanic and Asian women are shown to fill less skilled, domestic service jobs where the concentration of their black and white counterparts are lower. Such barriers such as language show that such large dominance of immigrant population in such sectors only breed competition between lower-earning groups, further lowering average wages for such families.

Historically, Asian men white men have been links in the discrepancies between not only earnings from labor, but in the benefits received voluntarily from employers as well. Benefits include health care, pensions, holiday and vacation days, among other government mandated and voluntary benefits.

Studies done by Tali Kristal and Yinon Cohen show the link between such wage inequality and benefits received, with empirical evidence showing a steady degradation of benefits received for those of different ethnic groups.

Education being one of the leading determinants of wage, [13] contributes in a similar manner to the racial wage gap. Varying education levels among races lead to different wages for various racial groups.

Education affects wages because it allows access to occupations of higher status that offer greater earnings. Waters and Karl Eschbach studied the decrease in the black-white wage gap from the s through the s and found the primary reason for the decrease in the wage gap to be the narrowing of the education gap between blacks and whites. When the education of different groups becomes more equal, wage gaps decrease, though they do not disappear.

A study found that the boost to earnings from legal education was lower for minorities than for whites, although all groups typically benefited from additional education. The way in which races are distributed throughout occupations affects the racial wage gap. White and Asian Americans, who have the highest median incomes, [15] are concentrated more in professional, executive, and managerial occupations than blacks, Hispanics, or American Indians.

For example, among law school graduates, minorities are about 10 percent less likely than whites to practice law. Occupational distribution varies for women of various races as well. White and Asian women are more likely to work in managerial and professional occupations, while black, Hispanic, and American Indian Women are more likely to work in service occupations. A study conducted by Kenneth Asian men white men and Mary Daly found that the occupational distribution between blacks and white improved between and the s.

Asian men white mena black male was still more likely than a white male to work in lower-skills jobs and less likely than a white male to work in high-paying jobs. The globalization of the United States' economy in the s and s caused a shift in the U. Those who possessed financial and human capitalsuch as education, succeeded in the new economy because the money and skills they had to offer were in short supply.

Those who possessed only labor did not fare well because cheap, physical labor was in oversupply in the global market. In the new globalized economy that formed, much of the United States' manufacturing was exported, which affected most adversely the group of Americans in the lowest section of the education distribution, a section in which minority groups are overrepresented.

The distance between jobs and the location of minorities' homes affects the ability of minorities to find profitable work.

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