You have probably seen plenty of moss growing around your home or school. They especially like shady, damp places. Mosses are a type of non-vascular plant that differ from vascular plants in a lot of ways.
Non-vascular plants are the most simple plants found on land. How do nonvascular plants reproduce sexually category of non-vascular plants includes Bryophyta; which includes mosses, hornworts and liverworts. They are the successor of green algae division of plants. Below are some more characteristics of non-vascular plants.
One of the most important characteristics of non-vascular plants is the absence of vascular tissues. Non-vascular plants do not have the vascular tissues known as xylem and phloem. They do not have an internal water transport system which is found in vascular plants.
Though these non-vascular plants do have stem-like and leaf-like structure, they lack true roots, stems or leaves.
As they do not have any vascular tissue, they cannot retain water for long time or transport it to other parts of the plant. Moss can be seen on moist places such as bogs and swamps as they absorb water from their surroundings. Like all plants, they need water to survive and they have to absorb it directly from the surrounding air or any other nearby resource.
They distribute water to other parts by using slow means such as capillary action, diffusion and cytoplasmic streaming. Non-vascular plants are always small in size. As they lack the woody tissues that are required to support a plant on land they can only reach a height of a few centimeters.
Moreover, they cannot transport water and food very far due to lack of vascular tissues. They transfer water, organic food and minerals from environment to the interior of gametophyte through cell to cell osmosis. All plants need to reproduce in order to expand their species, but non-vascular plants do not produce flowers or seeds.
Non-vascular plants can reproduce sexually and asexually, though asexual reproduction is not a very common method. During asexual reproduction, plant material gets regenerated when any part of the plant such as leaves fall to the ground. This results in growth of secondary plants. During sexual reproduction, the archegonia, present on female gametophytes on the top leaves of mosses, produce egg cells. The sperm cells are produced by Antheridia, present on the male gametophytes.