Violence in sexual-affective relationships among teens and young people is recognized as a social, educational, and health problem that has increased worldwide in recent years. Educational institutions, as central developmental contexts in adolescence, are key in preventing and responding to gender violence through implementing successful actions.
Memory reports were collected before and after the reading and coded to analyze their content, both quantitatively and qualitatively. A focus group was also conducted to examine the personal impact of the intervention on participants. Compared with controls, the experimental group had stronger critical memories of episodes involving violencean average decrease in positive emotions induced by recall, and an average increase in negative emotions.
The findings both advance knowledge on the reconstructive nature of autobiographical memories of violent sexual-affective relationships in female youth and the potential of memory-based interventions as an instrument to prevent and reduce gender violence in school contexts.
Teachers and teaching staff, and educational psychologists, among others, can benefit from these results by expanding the tools they have to address gender violence among female adolescents and youth.
Violence in sexual-affective relationships among teens and young people is recognized as a social and health problem that has increased worldwide in recent years. Thirty percentage of young females aged 15—19 are victims of violence in their sexual-affective relationships World Health Organization,and this abuse often begins in preadolescence Banyard and Cross, ; Leen et al.
A study on the prevalence of sexual aggression among young people Conway bowman wife sexual dysfunction 10 European countries Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Greece, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, and Spain found that between This study also shows that this victimization is related to suffering sexually transmitted diseases Blom et al.
In Germany, in a sample of teens aged 14—18, In this same study, adolescents who were victims of partner abuse had a lower quality of life Conway bowman wife sexual dysfunction with female teenagers who were not victimized Blattner et al. Importantly, several studies have shown that IPV at a young age occurs in both stable and sporadic sexual-affective relationships and among women with different socioeconomic statuses Trygged et al.
The consequences of this violence in adolescence and youth are numerous and introduce major obstacles for positive development. At the psychological level, young women may experience symptoms of depression and anxiety Ackard et al. Research has also shown that victims of IPV may engage in unhealthy behaviors, such as using tobacco, drugs and alcohol, and may exhibit antisocial behaviors Roberts et al. Additionally, many of those adverse Conway bowman wife sexual dysfunction may extend into adulthood and increase the likelihood of establishing violent relationships later in life Sunday et al.
At the educational level, evidence demonstrates an increase in the dropout rate and a decline in academic performance among victims of gender violence Banyard and Cross, ; Holmes and Sher, In addition, these women are at higher risk for victimization during college Smith et al.
A large number of studies have focused on investigating the causes, risk factors, and predictors of gender violence Sheridan and Lyndon, "Conway bowman wife sexual dysfunction" Karlsson et al. Among those many series of factors, evidence supports the existence of a coercive discourse Puigvert and Flecha,a discourse which, shaped by an imbalance in power within relationships, influences socialization into linking attractiveness to people with violent attitudes and behaviors, while non-violent people and relationships are — because of this coercive discourse — mostly perceived as convenient but not exciting.
Likewise, research has shown that dialogs among friends can create expectations about behavior and gender in relation to the aggressive behavior of men Kimmel, ; Giordano,so conversations within peer groups are likely to be shaped by the coercive discourse and might reproduce it.
The gender Conway bowman wife sexual dysfunction literature has indicated the importance of examining the self-experience of violent intimate relationships to better understand the socialization "Conway bowman wife sexual dysfunction" in this area for every individual Oliver and Valls, Life narratives are central in this sense McAdams, ; Bruner, ; Akanle, ; what we remember about our personal past — that is, our autobiographical memories Conway and Pleydell-Pearce, - and how we remember it influence our sense of self, current emotions, and prospective thinking.
This is due to the key psychological functions that autobiographical memories accomplish. When we share autobiographical memories with others, we create and strengthen social bonds Conway,and based on our personal memories, we make sense of our life, make decisions, plan our future Klein et al. In the words of Kandelp.
Yet not all memories are equally relevant at all stages of life. Recalling those memories not only maintains but also fosters feelings of intimacy and connection with the person who is remembered Alea and Bluck, When speaking about memories of violent sexual-affective relationships, the transformation of such feelings of intimacy and connection — if any — with the perpetrator of violence becomes essential in order to prevent future victimization. In spite of the ability of autobiographical memories to influence prospective thinking Williams et al.
In regard with this last aspect, literature in educational sciences shows that much needs to and can be done. Research in education has well established the important role of schools, as central developmental contexts, in tackling all kinds of violence, including violence against girls and young women Fineran and Bennett, ; Lavoie et al. Once violence decreases, learning and achievement improve.
In terms of intervention, schools are ideal settings for the implementation of preventive strategies and programs Ozer, ; Lundgren and Amin,and Conway bowman wife sexual dysfunction the case of gender violence prevention even more, as schools, high schools and colleges are among the most essential settings for socialization in youth Theimann, Some prevention strategies in secondary schools have proven their efficacy at an international level.
One example is Safe Datesan evidence-based program focused on prevention of dating violence among teens Foshee et al. Another example is The Fourth Rwhich has shown to be able to reduce violence in teen couples, and gives the possibility to other socialization agents, such as Conway bowman wife sexual dysfunction members and teachers, to access the intervention strategies Wolfe et al.
Nevertheless, a meta-analysis of school-based interventions addressed to prevent and reduce violence in teen dating relationships concludes that in spite of some promising results, many initiatives implemented in educational settings are not decreasing violent relationships significantly De La Rue et al.
Therefore, it is central to advance toward the identification of educational actions that evidence their impact in preventing and responding to gender violence.
Out study is a contribution in this regard. Also, despite the relevance of autobiographical memories of violent sexual-affective relationships in relation to future victimization, existing prevention programs in schools rarely deal with personal memories. In addition, interventions in high schools are mostly designed without differentiating between young women who had any experience of violent sexual-affective relationships, stable or sporadic, Conway bowman wife sexual dysfunction young women who had not.
Memories of violent sexual-affective relationships which, due to the coercive discourse, might include feelings of attraction and desire, place some young females at risk of victimization, given the prospective functions of such memories. Along the line of "Conway bowman wife sexual dysfunction" impact of research Reale et al. This task appeared promising in the light of scientific evidence from the field of memory studies. Different from other types of human memories, autobiographical memories are malleable in nature Cohen and Conway, - that is, they can be reconstructed through specific learning experiences and social interactions Stone et al.