Sexual health promotion for young people delivered via digital media: Public Health Research, No. In this chapter we give an overview of the National sexual health campaign health of young people in the UK, and set this report in context in terms of current policy and practice concerning digital interventions for sexual health promotion.
Relationships, sexuality and sex are central to health and well-being 12 and adolescence is generally a time of learning and exploration, particularly with regard to sexual identity. National sexual health campaign with permission from the World Health Organization. Sex and relationships can be sources of pleasure and satisfaction for young people, and there has been an expansion of heterosexual sexual repertoires over time particularly oral and anal sex.
For example, young people under the age of 25 years experience higher incidences of genital chlamydia and genital warts than other age groups. With regard to young people under the age of 18 years, conception and abortion rates in England, Wales and Scotland are falling over time, 12 although the teenage conception rates in Scotland remain among the highest in Western Europe.
Particular groups of young people are at higher risk of poor sexual health, for example those who use drugs, teenage parents, incarcerated youths and young people from ethnic minority groups 91516 There is a strong deprivation gradient, with conception rates in the most deprived areas not falling as fast as those in more affluent areas. Sexual health in Northern Ireland is poor, with high levels of teenage pregnancy and increasing prevalence of STIs.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender LGBT young people are at risk of poorer sexual and mental health: A high proportion of young people are not receiving the sexual health services that they need. Although SRE is mandatory in primary schools in England, "National sexual health campaign" currently focuses only on biology, including puberty, reproduction and fertility.
In secondary schools it is mandatory to provide at least basic information on biological aspects of human growth and reproduction, STIs and HIV as part of the National Curriculum for Science. Independent schools including private schools and government-funded academy schools do not have to follow the national curriculum and are not governed by the same statutory obligations as maintained schools.
Parents in any school have the right to withdraw their children from all or part of any sex education except teaching on the biological aspects of human growth and reproduction, which are specified in the National Curriculum for Science. National sexual health campaign means that while sex education in some schools is excellent, in others children are not offered the information, skills and resources necessary to learn to enjoy safe and pleasurable sex lives.
In Wales, SRE is a compulsory part of the basic curriculum in all secondary schools. In Scotland there is no statutory requirement for schools to teach sex education.
Inthe Scottish Executive published a circular on sex education in Scottish schools, which encouraged all schools to provide sex education within a comprehensive programme of PSHE and religious and moral education.
National sexual health campaign the UK, some schools provide a very well-planned comprehensive SRE curriculum, while in others there is very little provided. Parents or guardians are entitled to withdraw their children from all or part of a planned sex education programme, meaning that many young people receive only minimal SRE. In recent years there has been a growing call for all children and young people to receive high-quality SRE.
There are also calls to include internet and media literacy in curricula. Experts and researchers in sexual health National sexual health campaign also called for the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence NICE to resume its work on the modernisation of SRE and to embrace a holistic perspective to focus on relationships, communication and consent in addition to biology.
The provision of sexual health services for young people varies across the UK. Young people may find it hard to access clinic services because of their concerns about privacy and confidentiality and fears about staff being critical or unfriendly.
Sexual health promotion forms a core component of care in sexual health clinics e.
The UK Guidelines on Safer Sex Advice recommend evidence-based behaviour-change interventions for those at higher risk of STIs including young peoplefocusing on enhancing communication skills and increasing motivation to adopt safer sexual behaviours. The NICE guidance on one-to-one interventions to reduce STIs and under conceptions recommends that clinicians assess STI risk when the opportunity arises, for example when someone attends for contraception or registers as a new patient.
It is difficult to ensure consistent, high-quality delivery of face-to-face, one-to-one behaviour-change interventions by clinic staff, and interventions are costly and time-consuming. Clinics are often overstretched and there is not necessarily funding available to train and staff to ensure the maintenance of high standards of intervention such as skills in motivational interviewing.
In addition, sexual health as a topic can be difficult for both patients and practitioners to broach. Outside school and clinic settings, many localities have outreach sex education for young people, but the funding of these programmes is often local and short term, and provision varies across the UK.
In community settings, group interventions can be effective, but these tend to be available for specific groups, such as MSM only. Face-to-face interventions are expensive to provide and it is difficult to ensure that interventions are delivered as National sexual health campaign. There has been an explosion of interest in the use of digital media technology for health over the past decade or so.
The NHS has lagged behind other institutions and commercial companies in terms of information and National sexual health campaign technology, but there is now an impetus to address this, to facilitate patient access to information and self-care and to reduce health-care costs. There have been important policy commitments to the integration of digital communications into health-care systems. Taking A Long-Term View detailed the spiralling costs of health-care and the importance of self-care, and recommended improving the use of IT in the health service to improve quality and productivity.
Fromthe Connecting for Health programme was introduced to implement the NHS national programme for IT to create a single, central electronic care record for patients and to connect general practitioners GPs to hospitals.
However, after enormous expenditure, this National sexual health campaign was abandoned after encountering insurmountable technical and security problems. The Innovation, Health and Wealth initiative from provides policy support for innovation of all types within the NHS, including a roll-out of telehealth and support for electronic care planning.
The 3millionlives programme www. Leading the Culture Change in Health and Care 43 aims to put patients in control of their health and care information, to make services more convenient and more joined up and to promote more transparent sharing of information. The policy proposes implementing the Digital First strategy for health National sexual health campaign care "National sexual health campaign" deliver innovation such as bringing together information and services from across the NHS, public health and social care into a single integrated customer service platform, developing an active community of digital professionals within the health and care system and providing a digital workspace to share best practice, case studies and digital knowledge.
The principle of Digital First is that it aims to reduce unnecessary face-to-face contact between patients and health-care professionals, using technology to make access to health care more flexible and convenient for patients and at a lower cost [e. Ideas include pre-assessment or triage online or by telephoneonline booking of appointments, automated appointment reminders, remote follow-up and electronic communication of results and hospital letters.
Patients will be able to access information about health and social care services and will also be able to give feedback online. There will be national standards to ensure that locally developed IT systems can exchange information effectively and securely.
The strategy also aims to encourage technology use by both patients and staff. The Personalised Health and Care policy paper 47 acknowledges the role of IT in empowering people to take charge of their own health by providing access to medical records and to accredited health and care apps and digital information.
The National Information Board is setting the strategy and direction for National sexual health campaign health and care system on IT and information, and is monitoring progress www. The Research and Innovation in Health and Social Care Policy of March 48 promotes health research and use of new technologies for the development of more effective treatments for NHS patients, and programmes such as Code4Health have been established for knowledge sharing and skill building, to facilitate the development and implementation of digital solutions for health and care.
In England, changes brought about by the Health and Social Care Act 50 have led to significant alterations in the landscape of sexual health provision, which impact on the potential for use of digital technologies in the statutory sector.
Councils have acquired commissioning responsibilities for sexual health under the umbrella of Public Health and, at the same time, greater local autonomy "National sexual health campaign" decisions about how services are configured. Local strategy is driven by Joint Strategic Needs Assessments and services are commissioned from a diverse community of providers by local authorities.
National-level policy guidance, support for local health communities and data analyses are provided by Public Health England to drive, but not determine, National sexual health campaign decision-making. For local authorities, bringing different areas of health improvement, such as alcohol, drug misuse services and sexual health, under the same roof as other departments, such as education, may mean greater interdisciplinary collaboration.
The changing context has brought new opportunities to address the wider determinants of sexual health and for aligning priorities across the health and social care sectors.
However, primary care, a significant sexual health National sexual health campaign, is commissioned separately, and different sexual health providers may find themselves competing for rather than collaborating for a local authority tender to provide services. In Scotland, young people are a priority group in health policy: Relatively high rates of HIV among MSM mean that this has greater priority than some other areas, such as chlamydia screening.
Health and social care are integrated, with common budgets and integrated approaches to National sexual health campaign care and education.
Health care is commissioned almost exclusively from NHS providers, and that has facilitated national-level initiatives such as the National Sexual Health Electronic Patient Record, enabling more integrated approaches to care and sharing across services. In Wales, care is commissioned from a single provider, with the allocation of resources for sexual health promotion devolved to local regions, much like in England, leading to the potential for variation in provision.
Particular national health priorities for young people are safeguarding, identifying and preventing sexual exploitation and addressing domestic violence. The importance of peers and relationships, self-esteem, culture and freedom from coercion in sexual relationships represent key underlying principles for the strategy documents. Wider influences on behaviour, such as drugs and alcohol, as well as the particular needs of risk groups, such as those with National sexual health campaign disabilities or mental health problems, are also highlighted.
In England, the sexual health of young people also remains a policy priority, with two out of the three sexual health indicators in the Public Health Outcomes Framework 55 being young-person specific — reducing chlamydia among to year-olds and reducing teenage pregnancy. Gender-based violence has become an increasing national policy priority both politically and across education and health policy settings.