Modulation of sexual desires is, in some cases, necessary to avoid inappropriate or illegal sexual behavior downregulation of sexual desire or to engage with a romantic partner upregulation of sexual desire.
This diagnosis is thought to be associated with sexual urges Hypersexuality testosterone feel out of control, high-frequency sexual behavior, consequences due to those behaviors, and Hypersexuality testosterone ability to reduce those behaviors.
However, such symptoms also may be better understood as a non-pathological variation of high sexual desire. Hypersexuals are thought to be relatively sexual reward sensitized, but also to have high exposure to visual sexual stimuli. Thus, the direction of neural responsivity to sexual stimuli expected was unclear.
If these individuals exhibit habituation, their P amplitude to sexual stimuli should be diminished; if they merely have high sexual desire, their P amplitude to sexual stimuli should be increased. Neural responsivity to sexual stimuli in a sample of hypersexuals could differentiate these two competing explanations of symptoms. Fifty-two 13 female individuals who Hypersexuality testosterone as having problems regulating their viewing of visual sexual stimuli viewed emotional pleasant sexual, pleasant-non-sexual, neutral, and unpleasant photographs while electroencephalography was collected.
Larger Hypersexuality testosterone amplitude Hypersexuality testosterone to pleasant sexual stimuli, relative to neutral stimuli, was negatively related to measures of sexual desire, but not related to measures of hypersexuality. Implications for understanding hypersexuality as high desire, rather than disordered, are discussed.
Sexual desires must be consistently regulated to manage sexual behaviors. Downregulation may occur to avoid sexual partners who are illegal, as with pedophilia, or inappropriate, as with infidelity.
Upregulation may occur to engage with a romantic partner or increase stimulation to facilitate a genital response sufficient for intercourse. Under the influence of alcohol, it is the sexual arousal, rather than the amount of alcohol consumed, that best predicts intentions to engage in risky sexual behaviors George et al.
To date, success in developing treatments to help regulate sexual desires have been sparse, ineffective, or drastic. For example, hypoactive sexual desire disorder lacks any strong treatment for upregulation Heiman, It Hypersexuality testosterone unclear, however, whether the additional features Hypersexuality testosterone the proposed disease Kafka, add any explanatory power.
For comparison, consider excessive television viewing in children. Several treatments have been created that effectively decrease television viewing time e. This suggests a similar approach might be appropriate for high sexual desire if the proposed disease model does not add explanatory power beyond merely high sexual desire. In this study, brain responses were monitored using electroencephalography to visual emotional, including sexual, stimuli in a group who reported problems regulating their viewing Hypersexuality testosterone visual sexual stimuli VSS.
Event-related potentials ERPs were used to assess whether differences in responses to the sexual stimuli were related to sexual desire levels, hypersexual levels, both separately, or neither.
Processing Hypersexuality testosterone stimuli, presumably, differs in hypersexuals from non-hypersexuals, but the literature is non-specific about the neurological features of hypersexuality.
This makes "Hypersexuality testosterone" predictions difficult. Work in this area is rarely experimental Mundry et al. In fact, the current authors are not aware of any other research using ERPs to investigate hypersexuality to date. Much has been written about hypersexual's use of VSS to regulate their mood.
Although an exhaustive review of studies relating brain reactivity to impulsivity or addictions is beyond the scope of this study, studies of ERP components in impulsivity and addictions could guide predictions for hypersexuality. Addiction-specific stimulus processing has been associated with increased late ERP components i.
Similar to these studies, affective stimuli have been used in comparison to population-specific stimuli e. For example, a study of cocaine users included both drug and affective cues with Hypersexuality testosterone control groups to identify enhanced processing of drug cues Dunning et al.
Cocaine users in that study also exhibited decreased amplitude in late ERP components Hypersexuality testosterone pleasant and unpleasant pictures relative to controls.
ERPs, as measured in this study, would help delineate the individual and potentially overlapping contributions of sexual impulsivity and sexual addition on hypersexuality. One ERP component, the P, has been studied in relation to sexual desire levels. Amplitudes of the P elicited by auditory stimuli during erotic films are reduced more in women with higher sexual desire than women with lower sexual desire Vardi et al. Presumably, the sexual stimuli have greater attentional "Hypersexuality testosterone" for individuals with high sexual desire, which is reflected in reduced P amplitude to external auditory stimuli.
Auditory-evoked P amplitudes during a sexual stimulus are different from P amplitudes evoked by the onset of the sexual Hypersexuality testosterone itself. These findings are consistent, as both indicate greater attention allocated to processing sexual stimuli at the expense of processing Hypersexuality testosterone e. Several interpretations of P modulation to sexual stimuli in relation to sexual desire levels are possible.
These attentional effects affected by sexual desire level also are malleable within-person to exogenous testosterone Van der Made et al. Given related research on attention and sexual desire, those with high sexual desire could exhibit greater P to sexual stimuli than neutral stimuli, due to greater affective salience.
Alternatively, sexual stimuli could elicit lower P than neutral stimuli in those with high sexual desire, due to stronger attentional capture by the Hypersexuality testosterone.
Predicting the relationship of P amplitude elicited by sexual stimuli and sexual desire levels is more Hypersexuality testosterone. Those with higher sexual desire appear to allocate more attention to sexual stimuli than those with lower sexual desire Carvalho et al.
Usually more salient, or emotional, stimuli Hypersexuality testosterone greater P amplitude Cuthbert et al. However, P amplitudes elicited by population-specific stimuli habituate more rapidly for that population e. Therefore, individuals with high sexual desire could exhibit large P amplitude difference between sexual stimuli and neutral stimuli due to salience and emotional content of the stimuli. Alternatively, little or no P amplitude difference could be measured due to habituation to VSS.
This study was designed to determine whether sexual desire alone, or a cluster of symptoms unique to hypersexuality, predict neural reactivity to sexual stimuli. Specifically, questionnaire measures of sexual desire and hypersexuality were used to predict ERP amplitudes to a series of emotional, including sexual pictures.
The ability of the hypersexual measures to predict variance in the mean amplitude of the P beyond the variance predicted by sexual desire alone was tested.
Given that this is the first time ERPs were recorded Hypersexuality testosterone hypersexuals, and literature on addiction higher P and impulsivity lower P suggest opposite predictions, the direction of the hypersexual effect was specified mainly on theoretical grounds.