Principal components analysis justified Validating non staff physician subscales for professional fulfillment, work exhaustion, and interpersonal disengagement. Test-retest reliability estimates were 0. PFI scales demonstrated sufficient sensitivity to detect expected effects of a two-point range 8—40 change in sleep-related impairment. PFI scales have good performance characteristics including sensitivity to change and offer a novel contribution by assessing professional fulfillment in addition to burnout.
There is increasing attention in the medical community to the importance of physician well-being as it impacts not only physicians themselves, but also their team members, healthcare organizations, and patients [ 1 — 3 ].
Physicians have higher rates of burnout and lower satisfaction with work-life integration compared to the general population [ 4 ]. These rates have worsened in recent years [ 5 ]. Increased recognition of the importance of physician well-being and its personal and professional consequences may afford academic psychiatrists a growing opportunity to serve as mental health experts in the design, implementation, and evaluation of efforts to improve well-being among trainees, academic physicians, and other physicians.
In addition, academic psychiatry training programs, and the trainees they serve, may benefit from regular assessment of the well-being of their trainees. There may be particular value in short, reliable, and valid measures that can be used frequently and longitudinally.
Existing measures currently used to assess physician meet some but not all of these criteria. Optimal tools Validating non staff physician capture not only aspects of distress but also dimensions of well-being. However, the preponderance of Validating non staff physician physician well-being research has been focused on burnout.
Although the MBI personal accomplishment subscale captures a component of achievement at work, its authors conceived it and researchers often employ it as a reversed-valence component of burnout.
Widely cited studies on the national prevalence of physician burnout have used the full MBI or a two-item abbreviated version [ 45 ] consisting of two MBI items, each found to correlate highly with their respective full MBI emotional exhaustion and depersonalization subscales [ 2324 ]. Other studies of physician burnout have used a non-proprietary one-item measure of self-defined burnout instead of MBI items [ 2526 ].
Although it is easy to administer and imposes the lowest response burden, the one-item self-defined burnout measure is scored as a dichotomous variable indicating the presence or absence of burnout and, therefore, is likely to lack the sensitivity to change achievable with continuous scale measurement. The self-defined Validating non staff physician item also refers to the present without specifying a reference time period. Assessing emotional exhaustion and general disengagement from work, the OLBI has a well-validated English version [ 27 ] and can be found in its entirety in a published report [ 29 ].
The Oldenberg Burnout Inventory instructions do not specify a time period to consider when responding to questions indicating burnout.
Absence of a time period anchor may complicate interpretation of variance in scores across time points, which will depend on the time periods that respondents independently formulate as they complete the questionnaire. With exclusive focus on burnout, the "Validating non staff physician," the OLBI, and the one-item measure of burnout render an incomplete picture of physician well-being at work.
To address this deficiency, recent research on physician well-being has supplemented assessment of burnout with assessment of professional satisfaction [ 53031 ]. Satisfaction is one of many possible rewards that are intrinsic to work itself in the practice of medicine. Others include engagement, happiness, or meaningfulness—including meaningful contribution, feeling worthwhile, and professional self-efficacy.
We believe an optimal measure would efficiently capture several or all of these intrinsic components of professional fulfillment.