Sampoerna is the largest Indonesian tobacco company, ahead of Gudang Garam and Djarum. It produces kretek -type clove cigarettes. A typical brand is Sampoerna 'A' Mild, a filter cigarette in white paper.
Following Seeng Tee's death inhis two daughters took over the running of the company, while his two sons ran separate tobacco-related businesses. The daughters shifted the company's focus toward white cigarettes, which nearly caused bankruptcy for Sampoerna. Youngest son Liem Swie Ling, who ran a kretek factory in Bali, returned to Surabaya in to rescue the company. He shifted production back to hand-rolled Dji Sam Soe brand cigarettes. Inthe company launched Sampoerna A Hijau.
By the mids, the company was producing over 1 million cigarettes daily and had 1, staff. Swie Ling in the s began to hand over the running of the company to his second-eldest son, Liem Tien Pao, better known as Putera Sampoerna, who went on to modernize the company and expand its operations.
In May,Philip Morris International, at that time a subsidiary of the Altria Groupcompleted the acquisition of At the end of MaySampoerna closed its Lumajang and Jember factories and laid off 4, employees Putera sampoerna wife sexual dysfunction to declining sales of hand-rolled kretek cigarette as consumers moved to buy machine-made kretek cigarettes. Inthe company was criticized for its approach to "corporate social responsibility" efforts when Mount Merapi in Central Java began erupting.
The disaster relief teams which "aim to augment efforts by a stretched Indonesian government to house, clothe and feed evacuees from the volcano," were criticized for "the flashy four-wheel drive vehicles," and "the cluster of eager staffers wearing natty red and black uniforms covered with company logos. Tobacco — Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them. The plant is part of the genus Nicotiana and of the Solanaceae family, while more than 70 species of tobacco are known, the chief commercial crop is N.
The more potent variant N. Dried tobacco leaves are used for smoking in cigarettes, cigars, pipe tobacco. They can be consumed as snuff, chewing tobacco, dipping tobacco. Tobacco use is a factor for many diseases, especially those affecting the heart, liver. Inthe World Health Organization named tobacco as the single greatest preventable cause of death.
The English word tobacco originates from the Spanish and Portuguese word tabaco, the "Putera sampoerna wife sexual dysfunction" origin of this word is disputed, but it is generally thought to have derived at least in part, from Taino, the Arawakan language of the Caribbean. In Taino, it was said to either a roll of tobacco leaves or to tabago.
Tobacco has long used in the Americas, with some cultivation sites in Mexico dating back to — BC. Many Native American tribes have traditionally grown and used tobacco, traditionally, tobacco is seen as a gift from the Creator, with the ceremonial tobacco smoke carrying ones thoughts and prayers to the Creator.
Following the arrival of the Europeans to the Americas, tobacco Putera sampoerna wife sexual dysfunction popular as a trade item.
These seeds were planted in the outskirts of Toledo, more specifically in a known as Los Cigarrales named after the continuous plagues of cicadas. Before the development of lighter Virginia and white burley strains of tobacco, small quantities were smoked at "Putera sampoerna wife sexual dysfunction" time, using a pipe like the midwakh or kiseru or smoking newly invented waterpipes such as the bong or the hookah.
The alleged benefits of tobacco also account for its considerable success, Tobacco smoking, chewing, and snuffing became a major industry in Europe and its colonies by Tobacco has been a major crop in Cuba and in other parts of the Caribbean since the 18th century. In the late 19th century, cigarettes became popular, James Bonsack created a machine that automated cigarette production.
Surabaya — Surabaya, is the capital of Jawa Timur, located on northeastern Java island and along the edge of the Madura Strait and the second-largest-city in Indonesia. At the census, the city had a population over 2, Surabaya was once the largest city in Dutch East Indies and virtually the center of trading in the nation, exceeding those of Batavia, competing with the likes of Shanghai and Hong Kong.
It was said that the two powerful animals agreed for a truce and set boundaries, that the domain would be in the sea while the crocodiles domain would be on the land. However one day the shark swam into the estuary to hunt, this angered the crocodile.
The Shark argued that the Putera sampoerna wife sexual dysfunction was a water-realm which meant that it was shark territory, while the crocodile argued that the river flowed deep inland, a ferocious fight resumed as the two animals bit each other.
Finally the shark was badly bitten and fled to the sea. The two animals are now used as the symbol, with the two facing and circling each other, as depicted in a Putera sampoerna wife sexual dysfunction appropriately located near the entrance to the city zoo.
Alternate derivations proliferate, from the Javanese sura ing baya, meaning bravely facing danger, some people consider Jayabayas prophecy as being about the great war between native Surabayan people and foreign invaders at the start of the war of independence in Another story tells of two heroes who fought each other in order to be the king of the city, the two heroes were named Sura and Baya. These folk etymologies, though embraced enthusiastically by its people and city leaders, are unverifiable, the earliest record of Surabaya was in the book Zhu fan zhi written Putera sampoerna wife sexual dysfunction Zhao Rugua, in which it was called Jung-ya-lu, the ancient name of Surabaya.
At the estuary, the water is fresh. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, Surabaya was a duchy and it entered a conflict with, and was later captured by, the more powerful Sultanate of Mataram in under Sultan Agung.
It was one of Matarams fiercest campaigns, in which they had to conquer Surabayas allies, Sukadana and Madura, with this conquest, Mataram then controlled almost the whole of Java, with the exception of the Sultanate of Banten and the Dutch settlement of Batavia.
The expanding Dutch East India Company took the city over from a weakened Mataram in NovemberSurabaya became a major trading center under the Dutch colonial government, and hosted the largest naval base in the colony.
Surabaya was also the largest city in the serving as the center of Javas plantation economy. However, by a census recorded that Batavia has overtaken Surabayas population size, ina revolt occurred among the soldiers and sailors of Surabaya, led by the Indies Social Democratic Association.
The revolt was crushed and the insurgents given harsh sentences.
Japan occupied the city inas part of the occupation of Indonesia, after Japanese surrender at the end of World War II Surabaya was seized by Indonesian nationalists. Indonesia — Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country located mainly in Southeast Asia with some territories in Oceania. Situated between the Indian and Pacific oceans, it is the worlds largest island country, with Putera sampoerna wife sexual dysfunction than seventeen thousand islands.
At 1, square kilometres, Indonesia is the worlds 14th-largest country in terms of area and worlds 7th-largest country in terms of combined sea. It has an population of over million people and is the worlds fourth most populous country. The worlds most populous island, Java, contains more than half of the countrys population, Indonesias republican form of government includes an elected legislature and president.
Indonesia has 34 provinces, of which five have Special Administrative status and its capital and countrys most populous city is Jakarta, which is also the most populous city in Southeast Asia and the second in Asia. Despite its large population and densely Putera sampoerna wife sexual dysfunction regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the second highest level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin, copper, agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, tea, coffee, cacao, medicinal plants, spices and rubber.