Caviar less often, caviare is a delicacy consisting of salt-cured roe of the Acipenseridae family.
The roe can be "fresh" non-pasteurized or pasteurizedwith pasteurization reducing its culinary and economic value. Traditionally, the term caviar refers only to roe from wild sturgeon in the Caspian Sea and Black Sea  BelugaOssetra and Sevruga caviars. Depending on the country, caviar may also be used to describe the roe of other fish such Caviale calvisius online dating salmon, steelhead, trout, lumpfish, whitefish,  carp and other species of sturgeon.
Caviar is considered a delicacy and is eaten as a garnish  or a spread. According to the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organizationroe from any fish not belonging to the "Caviale calvisius online dating" order including Acipenseridaeor sturgeon sensu strictoand Polyodontidae or paddlefish are not caviar, but "substitutes of caviar. The term caviar is sometimes used as a euphemism to describe dishes that are perceived to resemble caviar, such as " eggplant caviar " made from eggplant and "Texas caviar" made from black-eyed peas.
Caviar and sturgeon from the Sea of Azov began reaching the tables of aristocratic and noble Byzantine Greeks in the 10th centuryafter the commencement of large-scale trading between the Byzantine Empire and Kievan Rus'.
The rarest and costliest "Caviale calvisius online dating" from beluga sturgeon that swim in the Caspian Sea, which is bordered by Iran, KazakhstanRussia, Turkmenistanand Azerbaijan. Wild caviar production was suspended in Russia between and to allow wild stocks to replenish. Azerbaijan and Iran also allow the fishing of sturgeon Caviale calvisius online dating their coasts.
Beluga caviar is prized for its soft, extremely large pea-size eggs. It can range in color from pale silver-gray to black. It is followed by the small golden sterlet caviar which is rare and was once reserved for Russian, Iranian and Austrian royalty.
Next in quality is the medium-sized, light brown to rich brown Ossetraalso known as Russian caviar. Others in the quality ranking are the gray sevruga caviar, the Chinese Kaluga caviar, and the American osetra.
The Siberian variety with black beads is similar to sevruga and is popular because of its reduced 5 years harvest period, but it's more briny than other kinds. The Chinese Kaluga hybrid varies in color from dark gray to light golden green and is a close cousin of beluga caviar.
Cheaper alternatives have been developed from the roe of whitefish and Caviale calvisius online dating North Atlantic salmon. Other caviar of note is harvested from sturgeon hybrids, such as A. In the wake of over-fishing, the harvest and Caviale calvisius online dating of black caviar was banned in Russia in In recent years [ when?
The design capacity of the fish-breeding zone is equal to tons of commodity fish and 5 tons of caviar a year. In the early 20th century, Canada and the United States were the major caviar suppliers to Europe ; they harvested roe from the lake sturgeon in the North American midwestand from the Shortnose sturgeon and the Atlantic sturgeon spawning in the rivers of the Eastern coast of the United States.
The American caviar industry got started when Henry Schacht, a German immigrant, opened a business catching sturgeon on the Delaware River. He treated his caviar with German Caviale calvisius online dating and exported a great deal of it to Europe. At around the same time, sturgeon was fished from the Columbia River on the west coast, also supplying caviar. At the time, American caviar was so plentiful that it was given away at bars with the intent of inducing or prolonging thirst in patrons.
With the depletion of Caspian and Black Sea caviar, production of farmed or "sustainable" caviar  has greatly increased. As well as Canada and the United States, Uruguay has become a major producer and exporter.
Kibbutz Dan in Israel  produces 4 tons of caviar a year. The farm is fed by the Dan Rivera tributary of the Jordan River. The Caviale calvisius online dating Royal family has held a long affinity with the sturgeon sincewhen Edward II decreed it a Royal fishwhereby all sturgeons found within the foreshore of the Kingdom are decreed property of the monarch. Prior to starting caviar production in the United Kingdom, the company received a letter from Buckingham Palace confirming that the Queen would not extend the royal prerogative and that the sturgeon held by KC Caviar would therefore remain the property of the company.
Beluga sturgeon were common in the Po river in Italy in Caviale calvisius online dating 16th century, and were used to produce caviar. Cristoforo da Messisbugo in his book Libro novo nel qual si insegna a far d'ogni sorte di vivandaVenice,at pagegave the first Caviale calvisius online dating recipe in Italy about extraction of the eggs from the roe and caviar preparation "to be consumed fresh or to preserve". Production was sporadically continued by a new owner untilwhen sturgeon stopped swimming up the Po river.
Sincesome sturgeon have reappeared in the Po. Currently, Italian caviar is obtained almost entirely "Caviale calvisius online dating" bred sturgeons. The caviar production is concentrated predominantly in Bresciawhich is considered the capital of Italian caviar: Italy is the world's first producer. The 17th-century book Don Quixote mentions "cavial"   in a banquet of German pilgrims. Untilsturgeons and caviar were collected at the lower parts of rivers GuadalquivirEbroDuero and Tajo.
The Iranian caviar is a very lucrative export good of Iran, with roughly half being collected from sturgeons near Bandar Torkaman. Caviar Court, in Dammam, Saudi Arabiawas established in and began harvesting caviar in It produced about five tons per year in and is building a larger facility in Abu Dhabi hoping to produce 35 tons by Over-fishing, smuggling and pollution caused by sewage entry into the Caspian Sea have considerably reduced the sea's sturgeon population.
In Septemberthe United States Fish and Wildlife Service banned the import of Caspian Sea Beluga caviar to protect the endangered Beluga sturgeon; a month later, the ban was extended to include Beluga caviar from the entire Black Sea basin. Commercial caviar production historically involved stunning the fish and extracting the ovaries. Another method of extracting caviar is by performing a caesarean sectionwhich allows the female to continue producing roe. A small incision is made Caviale calvisius online dating the urogenital muscle when the fish is deemed to be ready to be processed.
An ultrasound is used to determine the correct timing. Preparation follows a sequence that has not significantly changed over the last century. First, the ovaries are removed from a sedated female sturgeon and passed through a sieve to remove the membrane. Freed roes are rinsed to wash away impurities. Roes are now ready to become caviar by adding Caviale calvisius online dating precise amount of salt for taste and preservation. The fresh product is tasted and graded according to quality.
Finally, the golden eggs are packed into lacquer-lined tins that will be further processed or sold directly to customers. In coastal British ColumbiaFraser River white sturgeon are sustainably farmed to produce caviar.
Instead it is called "Felix Roe Paste". When sold outside Scandinavia, the Caviale calvisius online dating is referred to as creamed smoked roe or in French as Caviar de Lysekil. A sturgeon caviar imitation is a black or red coloured lumpsucker caviar sold throughout Europe in small glass jars.
A more expensive alternative sold in Sweden and Finland is caviar from the vendace. In Finland caviars from burbot and common whitefish are also sold, but not as "caviar", since the word "caviar" is exclusively reserved for sturgeon roe. There are also kosher and vegan caviar substitutes made of seaweeds such as Laminaria hyperborea.