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A Gopuram or Gopura is a monumental tower, usually ornate, at the entrance of any temple, especially in Southern India. This forms a prominent feature of KoilsHindu temples of the Dravidian style.

They function as gateways through the walls that surround the temple complex. 4 gopurams in bangalore dating gopuram's origins can be traced back to early structures of the Tamil kings Pallavas and by the twelfth century under the Pandya rulers these gateways became a dominant feature of a temple's outer appearance, eventually overshadowing the inner sanctuary which became obscured from view by the gopuram's colossal size.

Often a shrine has more than one gopuram.

A koil may have multiple gopurams, typically constructed 4 gopurams in bangalore dating multiple walls in tiers around the main shrine. Gopurams are widespread in south Indian temples, predominantly in Tamil Nadu. One of the special features is that one idol contains the forms of two Gods - front side as Chakratalwar with sixteen hands and the back side as Narasimhar. Vimanas are structures over the sanctum of temples, predominantly in Odisha and Tamil Nadu. In many cases the vimanams are confused with gopurams.

In Tamil Nadu, Vimanams are present above the Garbhagruha or Sanctum sanctorum in of a Hindu temple and will be relatively smaller in size compared to the gopurams, which are usually present at the entrance of the temple. The temple was built in the 11th century atop its ruins by the progenitor of the Eastern Ganga dynastyKing Anantavarman Chodaganga Deva. The temple is famous for its annual Rath Yatraor chariot festival, in which the three main temple deities are hauled on huge and elaborately decorated temple cars.

Since medieval times, it is also associated with intense religious fervour. The Vimana is flanked on either side by small temples; the one in the north now housing the Goddess is fairly well preserved. The small shrine of Chandikesvara is near the steps in the north. In the north-east are a shire housing Durga, a well called lion-well simhakeni with a 4 gopurams in bangalore dating figure guarding its steps and a late mandapa housing the office.

Nandi is in the east facing the main shrine. In the same direction is the ruined gopura, the entrance tower. The main tower surrounded by little shrines truly presents the appearance of a great Chakravarti emperor surrounded by chieftains and vassals. The Gangaikondacholapuram Vimana is undoubtedly a devalaya chakravarti, an emperor among temples of South India.

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Virupaksha Temple is the center of pilgrimage at Hampi, and has been considered the most sacred sanctuary over the centuries. It is intact among the ruins and is still used in worship. The temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva, known here as Virupaksha, there is also a Virupakshini Amma temple in a village called Nalagamapalle, Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, approximately km from Tirupati.

The temples history is uninterrupted from about the 7th century, the Virupaksha-Pampa sanctuary existed well before the Vijayanagara capital was located here. Inscriptions 4 gopurams in bangalore dating to Shiva date back to the 9th and 10th centuries, what started as a small shrine grew into a large complex under the Vijayanagara rulers. Evidence indicates there were made to the temple in the late Chalukyan and Hoysala periods.

The huge temple building was built by Lakkana Dandesha, a chieftain under the ruler Deva Raya II of the Vijayanagara Empire, under the Vijayanagara rulers, in the middle of the 14th century, there began a flowering of native art and culture. When the rulers were defeated by Muslim invaders in the 16th century, most of the wonderful decorative structures, the religious sect of Virupaksha-Pampa did not end with the destruction of the city in Worship there has persisted throughout 4 gopurams in bangalore dating years, at the beginning of the 19th century there were major renovations and additions, which included ceiling paintings and the towers of the north and east gopura.

At present, the temple consists of a sanctum, three ante chambers, a pillared hall and an open pillared hall. A pillared cloister, entrance gateways, courtyards, smaller shrines, the nine-tiered eastern gateway, which is the largest at 50 meters, is well-proportioned and incorporates some earlier structures.

It has a superstructure and a stone base. It gives access to the court containing many sub-shrines. The smaller eastern gateway leads to the court with its numerous smaller shrines.

Another gopuram towards north known as the Kanakagiri gopura, leads to an enclosure with subsidiary shrines. South India — The region occupies The geography of the region is diverse, with two ranges, the Western and Eastern Ghats, bordering the plateau heartland. During its history, a number of kingdoms ruled over parts of South India whose invasions across southern and southeastern Asia impacted the history.

Major dynasties that were established in South India include the Cheras, Cholas, Pandyas, Pallavas, Satavahanas, Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, european countries entered India through Kerala and the region was colonised by Britain and other nations.

HDI in the states is high and the economy has undergone growth at a faster rate than most northern states. The fertility rate in South India is 1.

Carbon dating on ash mounds associated with Neolithic cultures in South India date back to BCE, artefacts such as ground stone axes, and minor copper objects have been found in the region. Towards the beginning of BCE, iron technology spread through the region, however, the region was in the middle of a trade route 4 gopurams in bangalore dating extended from Muziris to Arikamedu linking the Mediterranean and East Asia.

The Vijayanagara Empire, founded in 14th century A. The Europeans arrived in the 15th century and by the middle of the 18th century, the French, the British Empire took control of the region from the British East India Company in During 4 gopurams in bangalore dating British colonial rule, the region was divided into the Madras Presidency, Hyderabad state, Mysore, Travancore, Kochi, Vizianagaram and a number of other minor princely states.

Hindu temple architecture — The Hindu temple architecture 4 gopurams in bangalore dating an open, symmetry driven structure, with many variations, on a square grid of padas, depicting perfect geometric shapes such as circles and squares. In ancient Indian texts, a temple is a place for Tirtha - pilgrimage and it is a sacred site whose ambience and design attempts to symbolically condense the ideal tenets of Hindu way of life. The architectural principles of Hindu temples in India are described in Shilpa Shastras, susan Lewandowski states that the underlying principle in a Hindu temple is built around the 4 gopurams in bangalore dating that all things are one, everything is connected.

The primary deity of different Hindu temples varies to reflect this spiritual spectrum and these harmonious places were recommended in these texts with the explanation that such are the places where gods play, and thus the best site for Hindu temples. While major Hindu Mandirs are recommended at sangams, river banks, lakes and seashore, Brhat Samhita, here too, they recommend that a pond be built preferably in front or to the left of the temple with water gardens.

If water is present naturally nor by design, water is symbolically present at the consecration of temple or the deity. A Hindu temple design follows a design called vastu-purusha-mandala.

The name is a composite Sanskrit word with three of the most important components of the plan, mandala means circle, Purusha is universal essence at the core of Hindu tradition, while Vastu means the dwelling structure. The design lays out a Hindu temple in a symmetrical, self-repeating structure derived from central beliefs, myths, cardinality, the four cardinal directions help create the axis of a Hindu temple, around which is formed a perfect square in the space available.

The circle of mandala circumscribes the square, the square is considered divine for its perfection and as a symbolic product of knowledge and human thought, while circle is considered earthly, 4 gopurams in bangalore dating and observed in everyday life. The square is divided into perfect square grids, in large temples, this is often a 8x8 or 64 4 gopurams in bangalore dating structure.

In ceremonial temple "4 gopurams in bangalore dating," this is an 81 sub-square grid, the square is symbolic and has Vedic origins from fire altar, Agni. The alignment along cardinal direction, similarly is an extension of Vedic rituals of three fires and this symbolism is also found among Greek and other ancient civilizations, through the gnomon. The second design of 4 padas has a central core at the diagonal intersection.

The 9 pada design has a sacred surrounded center, and is the template for the smallest temple, older Hindu temple vastumandalas may use the 9 through 49 pada series, but 64 is considered the most sacred geometric grid in Hindu temples. It is also called Manduka, Bhekapada or Ajira in various ancient Sanskrit texts, each pada is conceptually assigned to a symbolic element, sometimes in the form of a deity or to a spirit or apasara.

Dravidian architecture — Dravidian architecture was an architectural idiom that emerged in the Southern part of the Indian subcontinent or South India. It consists primarily of temples with pyramid shaped towers and are constructed of sandstone, soapstone or granite and this styled architecture can also be found in parts of North India, Northeastern and central Sri Lanka. The Modern Tamil word for temple is koil, titular worship was also given to kings.

In the Dravidian-speaking South, the concept of kingship led to the assumption of major roles by state. Mayamata and Manasara shilpa texts estimated to be in circulation by 5th to 7th century AD, is a guidebook on Dravidian style of Vastu Shastra design, construction, sculpture and joinery technique.

Traditional Dravidian architecture and symbolism are also based on Agamas, the Agamas are non-vedic in origin and have been dated either as post-vedic texts or as pre-vedic compositions.

Gate-pyramids, Gopuras, which are the features in the quadrangular enclosures that surround the more notable temples. Gopuras are very common in dravidian temples. Pillared halls are used for purposes and are the invariable accompaniments of these temples. In Southern India seven kingdoms and empires stamped their influence on architecture during different times, one such temple, the Saluvannkuppan Murukan temple, unearthed inconsists of three layers.

The lowest layer, consisting of a shrine, is one of the oldest of its kind in South India. It is one of two brick shrine pre Pallava Hindu temples to be found in the state, the other being the Veetrirundha Perumal Temple at Veppathur dedicated to Lord Vishnu.

The dynasties of early 4 gopurams in bangalore dating Tamilakkam expanded and erected structural additions to many of these brick shrines, sculptures of erotic art, nature and deities from the Madurai Meenakshi Amman Temple, and the Srirangam Ranganathaswamy Temple date from the Sangam period. Over temples remain in the Malaprabha basin, the most enduring legacy of the Chalukya dynasty is the architecture and art that they left behind.

Finial — A finial or hip-knob is an element marking the top or end of some object, often formed to be a decorative feature. Where there are several such elements they may be called pinnacles and these are frequently seen on top of bed posts or clocks. Decorative finials are also used to fasten lampshades, and as an ornamental element at the end of the handles of souvenir spoons.

The charm at the end of a chain is also known as a finial. During the various dynasties in China, a finial was worn on the top of the civil or military officials wore during formal court ceremonies.

The finial was changed to a knob for other daily usage, in Java and Bali, a rooftop finial is known as mustaka 4 gopurams in bangalore dating kemuncak. A ball-style finial is often mounted to the top of a stationary flagpole, the United States Army, Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard employ a variety of different finials depending on the flag in question, the Marines and Coast Guard deferring to the Navys protocols.

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Bed posts often end in finials, wooden posts tend to have turned wood finials. While the purpose of finials on 4 gopurams in bangalore dating posts is mostly decorative, they serve a purpose on curtain rods, curtain rod finials can be seen to act much like a barometer of public taste. Many designs hark back to the gothic and neo-gothic of architectural finials, while other contemporary finials reflect minimalist, art nouveau, the durability, strength and machinability of modern alloys have lent themselves to increasingly intricate and dazzling designs.