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Sir Francis Drake c. Drake carried out the second circumnavigation of the world in a single expedition, from toand was the first to complete the voyage as captain while leading the expedition throughout the entire circumnavigation.

With his incursion into the Pacific Oceanhe claimed what is now California for the English and inaugurated an era of conflict with the Spanish on the western coast of the Americas, [4] an area that had previously Great expeditions dating largely unexplored by western shipping. As a Vice Admiralhe was second-in-command of the English Great expeditions dating in the battle against the Spanish Armada in Drake's exploits made him a hero to the English, but his privateering led the Spanish to brand him a pirateknown to them as El Draque.

Francis Drake was born in Tavistock, DevonEngland. Although his birth date is not formally recorded, it is known that he was born while the Six Articles were in Great expeditions dating. His birth date is estimated from contemporary sources such as: This would date his birth to A date of c. He was the oldest of the twelve sons [12] of Edmund Drake —a Protestant farmer, and his wife Mary Mylwaye. The first son was alleged to have been named after his godfather Francis Russell, 2nd Earl of Bedford.

There Drake's father obtained an appointment to minister the men in the King's Navy. He was ordained deacon and was made vicar of Upnor Church on the Medway.

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Francis Drake married Mary Newman at St. Budeaux church, Plymouth, in July She died 12 years later, in At the age of eighteen he was purser of a ship which sailed to the Bay of Biscay. At twenty he made a voyage to the coast of Guinea. He made three voyages with this fleet, attacking Portuguese towns and ships on the coast of West Africa. In Drake Great expeditions dating on his third expedition with the Hawkins fleet when, whilst negotiating to resupply and repair at a Spanish port in Mexicothe fleet was attacked by Spanish warships, with all but two of the English ships lost.

He escaped along with John Hawkins, surviving the attack by swimming. Drake's hostility towards the Spanish is said to have started with this incident. He renewed his visit the next year Great expeditions dating the sole purpose of obtaining information.

Inhe embarked on his first major independent enterprise. This was the point at which the silver and gold treasure of Peru had to be landed and sent overland to the Caribbean Seawhere galleons from Spain would pick it up at the town of Nombre de Dios. Drake left Plymouth on 24 Maywith a crew of 73 men in two small vessels, the Pascha 70 tons and the Swan 25 tonsto capture Nombre de Dios.

His first raid was late in July Drake and his men captured the town and its treasure.

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When his men noticed that Drake was bleeding profusely from a wound, they insisted on withdrawing to save his life and left the treasure. Drake stayed in the area for almost a year, raiding Spanish shipping and attempting to capture a treasure shipment. He raided the waters around Darien in modern Panama with a crew including many French privateers including Guillaume Le Testua French buccaneer, and African slaves Maroons who had escaped the Spanish.

Drake tracked the Silver Train to the nearby port of Nombre de Dios. After their attack on the richly laden mule train. Drake and his party found that they had captured around 20 tons of silver and gold. They buried much of the treasure, as it was too much for their party to carry, and made off with a fortune in gold. Wounded, Le Testu was captured and later beheaded. The small band of adventurers dragged as much gold and silver as they could carry back across some 18 miles of jungle-covered mountains to where they had left the raiding boats.

When they got to the coast, the boats were gone. Drake and his men, downhearted, exhausted and hungry, had nowhere to go and the Spanish were not far "Great expeditions dating." At this point Drake rallied his men, buried the treasure on the beach, and built a raft to sail with two volunteers ten miles along the surf-lashed coast to where they had left the flagship.

When Drake finally reached its deck, his men were alarmed at his bedraggled appearance. Fearing the worst, they asked him how the raid had gone. Drake could not resist a joke and teased them by looking downhearted. Then he laughed, pulled a necklace of Spanish gold from around his neck and said "Our voyage is made, lads! It was during this expedition that he climbed a high tree in the central mountains of the Isthmus of Panama and thus became the first Englishman to see the Pacific Ocean.

He remarked as he saw it that he hoped one day an Great expeditions dating would be able to sail it—which he would do years later as part of his circumnavigation of the world. When Drake returned to Plymouth after the raids, the government signed a temporary truce with King Philip II of Spain and so was unable to acknowledge Drake's accomplishment officially.

Drake was considered a hero in England and a pirate in Spain for his raids. Drake was present at the Rathlin Island massacre in Despite their surrender, Norreys' troops killed all Great expeditions dating defenders and more than civilian men, women and children of Clan MacDonnell.

Therefore, the remaining leader of the Gaelic defense against English power, Sorley Boy MacDonnellwas forced to stay on the mainland. With the success of the Panama isthmus raid, in Elizabeth I of England sent Drake to start an expedition against the Spanish along the Pacific coast of the Americas. Drake used the plans that Sir Richard Grenville had received the patent for in Great expeditions dating Elizabeth, which was rescinded a year later after protests from Philip of Spain.

He set out from Plymouth on 15 Novemberbut bad weather threatened him and his fleet. They were forced to take refuge in Falmouth, Cornwallfrom where they returned to Plymouth for repair. After this major setback, Drake set sail again on 13 December aboard Pelican with four other ships and men. He soon added a sixth ship, Mary formerly Santa Mariaa Portuguese merchant ship that had been captured off the coast of Africa near the Cape Verde Islands.

He also added its captain, Nuno da Silva, a man with considerable experience navigating in South American waters. Drake's fleet suffered great attrition; he scuttled both Christopher and the flyboat Swan due to loss of men on the Atlantic crossing.

He made landfall at the gloomy bay of Great expeditions dating Julianin what is now Argentina. Ferdinand Magellan had called here half a century earlier, where he put to death some mutineers.

Drake's men saw weathered and bleached skeletons on the grim Spanish gibbets. Following Magellan's example, Drake tried and executed his own "mutineer" Thomas Doughty. Great expeditions dating crew discovered that Mary had rotting timbers, so they burned the ship.

Drake decided to remain the winter in San Julian before attempting the Strait of Magellan. On his voyage to interfere with Spanish treasure fleets, Drake had several quarrels with his co-commander Thomas Doughty and on 3 Juneaccused him of witchcraft and charged him with mutiny and treason in a shipboard trial. The main pieces of evidence against Doughty were the testimony of the ship's carpenter, Edward Bright, who after the trial was promoted to master of the ship Marigoldand Doughty's admission of telling Lord Burghleya vocal opponent of agitating the Spanish, of the intent of "Great expeditions dating" voyage.

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