NIOT came across palaeo river channels in the sea. These were seen by the scientists involved to be the extension of the present day major rivers of the area.
These had square and rectangular features in an arranged geometric fashion which are not expected by the scientist in the marine domain. As per the scientist involved such features are unlikely to be due to natural marine geological processes. This made the scientists suspect that human workmanship must have been involved here. The site was discovered by NIOT while they performed routine pollution studies using sonar, and was described as an area of regularly
Carbon dating of dwarka city geometric structures.
In his announcement, Joshi represented the site as an urban settlement that pre-dates the Indus Valley Civilization. Furthermore, the Indus civilization port Lothal is located at the head, Gulf of Khambhat.
A follow-up investigation was conducted by NIOT in Novemberwhich included dredging to recover artifacts and sonar scans to detect structures. Among the artifacts recovered were a piece of wood, pottery shards, weathered stones initially described as hand tools, fossilized bones, and a tooth. During these excavations, Carbon dating of dwarka city reported finding two paleochannels flanked by rectangular and square basement-like features. Artifacts were recovered by means of dredging, including pottery sherds, microlithswattle and daub remains, and hearth materials.
These artifacts were sent for dating at the laboratories of Manipur University and Oxford University. The wattle and daub remains are composed of locally available clay, reed, husk, pottery pieces, and pieces of fresh water shell.
The wattle and daub also shows evidence of partial burning. The most recent work in the Gulf of Khambhat took place from October to January and was primarily a geologic study.
Techniques used during this investigation include bathymetry surveysub-bottom survey, side-scan surveyand magnetic survey. One of the major findings from this investigation concerns the orientation of sand ripples at the site.
NIOT researchers claim that there are two sets of ripples visible at the site; One set is a natural feature formed by tidal currents, whilst they say the other set has formed in relation to underlying structural features.
One of the main controversies surrounding the GKCC is the dated piece of wood.
Agrawalchairman of the Paleoclimate Group and founder of Carbon testing facilities in India stated in an article in Frontline Magazine that the piece was dated twice, at separate laboratories. Agrawal argues that the wood piece is a common find, given that 20, years ago the Arabian Sea was meters lower than its current level, and that the gradual sea level rise submerged entire forests. Another controversial issue are the artifacts retrieved from the site during the various excavations. It is disputed that many of the items that have been identified as artifacts by the NIOT investigators are actually man-made.
Instead their artificial nature is contested and they are argued to be stones of natural origin. Researchers report finding shards of pottery as indicative of hand-made and wheel-turned pottery traditions. The reported shards have simple rims with small incised lines. All of the pottery fragments found so far are small or miniature shards. In addition, their small size also raises the possibility that the real shards have been transported from elsewhere by local, strong tidal currents.
But if the pottery is genuine, researchers say it should show some similarities to Harappan pottery, which is typically red and black and stamped with seals. Based on the current pottery collection, a stylistic continuity of Harappan civilization isn't evident. The small size of the artifact collection makes it difficult to analyse the pottery conclusively. The Gulf of Khambhat was formed by a major rift that resulted in a down sliding of the Khambhat region.
The area is very tectonically active today, and several faults can be found in the gulf. Periodic earthquakes also occur "Carbon dating of dwarka city." Because of the tectonic activity and strong currents, these archeologists claim that there is not sufficient stratification to Carbon dating of dwarka city sure the recovered artifacts can be associated with the site.
Complaints have arisen because NIOT recovered artefacts by dredging the sea floor of the site. This method might allow errant artefacts to be collected along with those that actually correlate with the site.
Carbon dating of dwarka city is virtually impossible with this method as well. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Archived from the original on Archived copy as title link. Archaeologists debunk the claim that underwater structures in the Gulf of Khambat point to the existence of a pre-Harappan civilisation.
Frontline 2—15 March Indocentric rewritings of early South Asian archaeology and history in Fagan, G. Retrieved from " https: Archived copy as title Webarchive template wayback links.
And carbon dating says that they are 9, years old. It's speculated to be termed Dwarka, or the 'Golden City.