He was a leading interpreter religious experience, who established paradigms in religious studies that persist to this day. His theory that hierophanies form the basis of religion, splitting the human experience of reality into sacred and profane space and time, has proved influential. His literary works belong to the fantastic and autobiographical genres. Early in his life, Eliade was a journalist and essayist, a disciple of Romanian far-right philosopher and journalist Nae Ionescuand a member of the literary society Criterion.
Several times during the late s, Eliade publicly expressed his support for the Iron Guarda fascist and antisemitic political organization. His political involvement at the time, as well as his other far right connections, were frequently criticised after World War II. Noted for his vast erudition, Eliade had fluent command five languages RomanianFrenchGermanItalianand English and a reading knowledge of three others HebrewPersianand Sanskrit.
He was elected a posthumous member of the Romanian Academy. Eliade kept a particularly fond memory of his childhood and, later in life, wrote about the impact various unusual episodes and encounters had on his mind. In one instance during the World War I Romanian Campaignwhen Eliade was about ten years of age, he witnessed the bombing of Bucharest by German zeppelins and the patriotic fervor in the occupied capital at news that Romania was able to stop the Central Powers ' advance into Moldavia.
He described this stage in his life as marked by an unrepeatable epiphany. I practiced for many years [the] exercise of recapturing that epiphanic moment, Archaeus mihai eminescu online dating I would always find again the same plenitude. I would slip into it as into a fragment of time devoid of duration—without beginning, middle, or end.
By this time I knew the world to which the drawing room belonged [ Robert Ellwood, a professor of religion who did his graduate studies under Mircea Eliade,  saw this type of nostalgia as one of the most characteristic themes in Eliade's life and academic writings.
As a child, Eliade was fascinated with the natural world, which formed the setting of his very first literary attempts,  as well as with Romanian folklore and the Christian faith as expressed by
Archaeus mihai eminescu online dating. With a group of friends, he designed and sailed a boat on the Danubefrom Tulcea to the Black Sea.
Instead, he became interested in natural science and chemistryas well as the occult and wrote short pieces on entomological subjects.
His interest in the two writers led him to learn Italian and English in private, and he also began studying Persian and Hebrew. Between andhe attended the University of Bucharest 's Faculty of Philosophy and Letters inearning his diploma with a study on Early Modern Italian philosopher Tommaso Campanella.
It was during his student years that Eliade met Nae Ionescuwho lectured in Logic Archaeus mihai eminescu online dating, becoming one of his disciples and friends. Eliade's scholarly works began after a long period of study in British Indiaat the University of Calcutta. Finding that the Maharaja of Kassimbazar sponsored European scholars to study in India, Eliade applied and was granted Archaeus mihai eminescu online dating allowance for four years, which was later doubled by a Romanian scholarship.
Before reaching the Indian subcontinentEliade also made a brief visit to Egypt. He studied the basics of Indian philosophyand, in parallel, learned Sanskrit, Pali and Bengali under Dasgupta's direction. Inwhile living with Dasgupta, Eliade fell in love with his host's daughter, Maitreyi Devilater writing a barely disguised autobiographical novel Maitreyi also known as "La Nuit Bengali" or "Bengal Nights"in which he claimed that he carried on a physical relationship with her.
Eliade received his PhD inwith a thesis on Yoga practices.
He later recalled that the book was an early step for understanding not just Indian religious practices, but also Romanian spirituality. As one of the figures in the Criterion literary society —Eliade's initial encounter with the traditional far right was polemical: Cuza 's National-Christian Defense Leaguewho objected to what they viewed as pacifism and addressed antisemitic Archaeus mihai eminescu online dating to several speakers, including Sebastian;  inhe was among the signers of a manifesto opposing Nazi Germany 's state-enforced racism.
All I wish for is a deep change, a complete transformation. But, for God's sake, in any direction other than spirituality. Like Mihail Sebastian, who was himself becoming influenced by Ionescu, he maintained contacts with intellectuals from all sides of the political spectrum: They displayed his rejection of "Archaeus mihai eminescu online dating" and the modernizing goals of the Wallachian revolution perceived as "an abstract apology of Mankind"  and "ape-like imitation of [Western] Europe" as well as for democracy itself accusing it of "managing to crush all attempts at national renaissance",  and later praising Benito Mussolini 's Fascist Italy on the grounds that, according to Eliade, "[in Italy,] he who thinks for himself is promoted to the highest office in the shortest of times".
Eliade was especially dissatisfied with the incidence of unemployment among intellectuals, whose careers in state-financed institutions
Archaeus mihai eminescu online dating been rendered uncertain by the Great Depression.
Eliade decided to sue the Ministry of Educationasking for a symbolic compensation of 1 leu. Nevertheless, byhe gave his intellectual support to the Iron Guard, in which he saw "a Christian revolution aimed at creating a new Romania",  and a group able "to reconcile Romania with God".
When Eliade began coughing blood in Octoberhe was taken to a clinic in Moroeni. His office involved disseminating propaganda in favor of the Romanian state. He maintained a friendship with d'Ors, and met him again on several occasions after the war. Nina Eliade fell ill with uterine cancer and died during their stay in Lisbonin late As Archaeus mihai eminescu online dating widower later wrote, the disease was probably caused by an abortion procedure she had undergone at an early stage of their relationship.
At signs that the Romanian communist regime was Archaeus mihai eminescu online dating to take hold, Eliade opted not to return to the country.
On September 16,he moved to France with his adopted daughter Giza. Together with Emil Cioran and other Romanian expatriates, Eliade rallied with the former diplomat Alexandru Busuioceanuhelping him publicize anti-communist opinion to the Western European public. Beginning inhe wrote for the journal Critiqueedited by French philosopher Georges Bataille. In Octoberhe moved to the United States, settling in Chicago the following year. Haig Acterian 's widow, theater director Marietta Sadovawas sent to Paris in order to re-establish contacts with the two.
He was slowly rehabilitated at home beginning in the early s, under the rule of Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej. During his later years, Eliade's fascist past was progressively exposed publicly, the stress of which probably contributed to the decline of his health. Eight days previously, he suffered a stroke while reading Emil Cioran 's Exercises of Admirationand had subsequently lost his speech function.
In his work on the history of religion, Eliade is most highly regarded for his writings on Alchemy ShamanismYoga and what he called the eternal return —the implicit belief, supposedly present in religious thought in general, that religious behavior is not only an imitation of, but also a participation in, sacred events, and thus restores
Archaeus mihai eminescu online dating mythical time of origins.
Eliade is known for his attempt to find broad, cross-cultural "Archaeus mihai eminescu online dating" and unities in religion, particularly in myths.
Wendy DonigerEliade's colleague from until his death, has observed that "Eliade argued boldly for universals where Archaeus mihai eminescu online dating might more safely have argued for widely prevalent patterns". Robert Ellwood describes Eliade's approach to religion as follows. Eliade approaches religion by imagining an ideally "religious" person, whom he calls homo religiosus in his writings.
Eliade's theories basically describe how this homo religiosus would view the world. Instead, it means that religious "Archaeus mihai eminescu online dating" "says through its own language" that the world is as homo religiosus would see it, whether or not the real-life participants in religious behavior are aware of it.
Eliade argues that "Yahweh is both kind and wrathful; the God of the Christian mystics and theologians is terrible and gentle at once". Eliade's understanding of religion centers on his concept of hierophany manifestation of the Sacred —a concept that includes, but is not limited to, the older and more restrictive concept of theophany manifestation of a god. The "profane" space of nonreligious experience can only be divided up geometrically: In contrast to profane space, the site of a hierophany has a sacred structure to which religious man conforms himself.
A hierophany amounts to a "revelation of an absolute reality, to the non-reality of the vast surrounding expanse". Eliade notes that, in traditional societies, myth represents the absolute truth about primordial time. Eliade argues that all myths are, in that sense, origin myths: Many traditional societies believe that the power of a thing lies in its origin.
According to Eliade's theory, only the Sacred has value, only a thing's first appearance has value and, therefore, only the Sacred's first appearance has value. Myth describes the Sacred's first appearance; therefore, the mythical age is sacred time,  the only time of value: Eliade argues that traditional man attributes no value to the linear march of historical events: To give his own life value, traditional man performs myths and rituals.
Because the Sacred's essence lies only in the mythical age, only in the Sacred's first appearance, any later appearance is actually the first appearance; by recounting or re-enacting mythical events, myths and rituals "re-actualize" those events. Thus, argues Eliade, religious behavior does not only commemorate, but also participates in, sacred events:. In imitating the exemplary acts of a god or of a mythical hero, or simply by recounting their adventures, the man of an archaic society detaches himself from profane time and magically re-enters the Great Time, the sacred time.
Archaeus mihai eminescu online dating called this concept the " eternal return " distinguished from the philosophical concept of "eternal return". Wendy Doniger noted that Eliade's theory of the eternal return "has become a truism in the study of religions". Eliade attributes the well-known "cyclic" vision of time in ancient thought to belief in the eternal return.
For instance, the New Year ceremonies among the Mesopotamiansthe Egyptiansand other Near Eastern peoples re-enacted their cosmogonic myths. Therefore, by the logic of the eternal return, each New Year ceremony was the beginning of the world for these peoples.
According to Eliade, these peoples felt a need Archaeus mihai eminescu online dating return to the Beginning at regular intervals, turning time into a circle.
Archaeus mihai eminescu online dating argues that yearning to remain in the mythical age causes a "terror of history": Eliade suggests that the abandonment of mythical thought and the full acceptance of linear, historical time, with its "terror", is one of the reasons for modern man's anxieties. Eliade claims that many myths, rituals, and mystical experiences involve a "coincidence of opposites", or coincidentia oppositorum.
In fact, he calls the coincidentia oppositorum "the mythical pattern". Also, traditional man's dissatisfaction with the post-mythical age expresses itself as a feeling of being "torn and separate". On the level of pre-systematic thought, the mystery of totality embodies man's endeavor to reach a perspective in which the contraries are abolished, the Spirit of Evil reveals itself as a stimulant of Good, and Demons appear as the night aspect of the Gods. Eliade acknowledges that not all religious behavior has all the attributes described in his theory of sacred time and the eternal return.
The ZoroastrianJewishChristianand Muslim traditions embrace linear, historical time as sacred or capable of sanctification, while some Eastern traditions largely reject the Archaeus mihai eminescu online dating of sacred time, seeking escape from the cycles of time.
Because they contain rituals, Judaism and Christianity necessarily—Eliade argues—retain a sense of cyclic time:. However, Judaism and Christianity do not see time as a circle endlessly turning on itself; nor do they see such a cycle as desirable, as a way to participate "Archaeus mihai eminescu online dating" the Sacred. Instead, these religions embrace the concept of linear history progressing toward the Messianic Age or the Last Judgmentthus initiating the idea of "progress" humans are to work for a Paradise in the future.
The pre- Islamic Persian religion of Zoroastrianism, which made a notable "contribution to the religious formation of the West",  also has a linear sense of time.