As red blood cells degrade within a bruise, haemoglobin breaks Bruise dating chart into bilirubin and biliverdinand it is these pigments that pass through a series of colour changes. As these pigments resolve, the bruise changes in shape, size and location.
Colour changes tend to begin at the margins of a bruise, and thus a large collection of blood will take comparatively longer to pass through a series of colour changes. Traditionally, opinion regarding the 'age' of a bruise was based in large part on the colour of the bruise, and authors of forensic textbooks gave their own suggested 'timetable' of colour changes with time summarised in Langlois and Gresham There appeared to be Bruise dating chart 'consensus' view that red, blue and purple were 'early' colours, greens appearing after days and yellow making a late appearance after at least 7 days.
Yellow colouration appeared in bruises in calves, however, by 48 hours McCauseland and Dougherty However, it is now clear that the progressive colour changes do not occur in a 'linear' or predictable fashion, and researchers have attempted to identify what, if any, information can be gained from observing colour changes in bruises, and subsequently giving an opinion regarding their likely duration. Yellowing bruise several old.
A standard colour chart was included, and in some, but not all cases, "Bruise dating chart" photographs were taken. The key finding of this study was that yellow was not seen in bruises less than 18 hours Bruise dating chart, but that not all bruises developed this colour before resolving, and so a bruise without yellow could not be said to be less than 18 hours old.
They also indicated that the colours in bruises were dynamic, and could 'reappear' days later, and that separate bruises on the same person, inflicted at the same time did not necessarily exhibit the same colours, nor undergo equivalent changes in colours over time. Skin colouration affected the evaluation of bruising, and the study findings were therefore limited to white skinned individuals.
Following this study, Munang and colleagues looked at bruises in children, and observers were asked to decribe the predominant colour in vivo, and then again at a later date from a colour photograph.
Inter-observer variation was also assessed. In only 1 10 bruises examined at the same time and in the same place did 3 individuals completely agree as to the predominant colour seen.
Reliance on the colour yellow was thus beginning to be questioned, and Hughes et al showed subjects a series of photographs of bruises in which the yellow 'saturation' was digitally altered, in order Bruise dating chart evaluate differences in yellow perception. They found that there was a variability in yellow perception and that an individual's ability to perceive yellow declines with age.
All subjects used in this study had normal colour vision, as assessed using Ishihara Bruise dating chart. They identified only 3 papers that met their inclusion criteria out of articles, of which the full text of papers was reviewedand concluded that the assessment of the age of a bruise in children was inaccurate Maguire et al Bariciak Bruise dating chart al evaluated inter-observer accuracy of bruise characteristics and age, where the age of the bruise was known, and where abuse or a medical condition predisposing the injured child to bruising were excluded.
However, there was significant overlap between these groups of colours. Stephenson and Bialas photographed bruises of children on an orthopaedic ward, where the time of their injury was known, and concluded that different colours appear in the same bruise at the same time, and that not all colours appeared in every bruise.