Researcher at the Instituto Mora, Mexico City. Audiovisual Laboratory of Social Research, Coordinator. Research Coordinator at the Instituto Mora: Urban, Regional and International and Studies. This article describes potential lines of research using aerial photographs, focusing particularly on the study of urban areas. The specific case considered is that of Mexico City. After presenting an overview of aerial photography in Mexico, we review the potential of this type of record as a primary source for research.
The visual corpus analyzed is composed of about 30 aerial photographs taken between and They portray the urban space that is our object of investigation: We examine the collection of photographs taken at this site in order to demonstrate the methodological implications of working with aerial photographs of cities.
21 dias toreando online dating city is a projection of the social relationships on the ground Lefebvre This article analyzes the use and usefulness of aerial photography as a research source in a study of transformations 21 dias toreando online dating an urban space in central Mexico City. Most systematic aerial records of the city made during the greater part of the twentieth century consist of unpublished documents or documents rarely consulted in urban studies.
In studying the social processes undergone by cities and those who live in them, the work of documenting these images serves as a framework for proposing how these types of sources can be incorporated into social research of the city and urban places. I will examine their contributions and limitations compared to other types of photographic documents, as well as the methodological implications of their use.
The transformation of urban space can be affected by many different interests. Economic and political interests are often predominant, but aesthetic interests are also involved. In the process of conceiving, designing, producing and using urban spaces, pictures can play a key role. Photographs may be used in official, advertising, journalistic and other texts, to illustrate or complement the textual information and sometimes to promote an image of how the city may or should be and be 21 dias toreando online dating. In this article, I review how these ideas shape the transformation of the city and entail concessions that can guide urban change in one direction or another.
I begin by looking at some aspects of the urban environment, and describe the development of aerial photography in Mexico and its potential for studying the city in the twentieth century. Bearing in mind that we are dealing with a central zone in a large city, we characterize it as an urban nucleus that survives thanks to its dual function as a place of consumption and a place that is itself consumed Lefebvre This focus relates the intersection to political and economic interests and their urban involvement, above all because of its importance, although we have not always been able 21 dias toreando online dating find such obvious traces of this.
The site was formed and shaped out of historical and natural elements, but always politically, because it is a representation literally riddled with ideology; it is a product of society Lefebvre This Lefebvrian concept of the urban contrasts with the city and is distinguished from it precisely because it appears during of the expansion of the city.
In our case, the urban appeared in parallel to the development of the crossroad, and in time triggered the social uses of the Paseo de Bucareli Avenue in the late eighteenth century. By this time it was already quite urban, and there were plans to extend the city westward. And it is precisely this urban character that enables us to note and understand aspects of the city that often go unrecognized: The contradictions between urban habitat, segregation and centralization — which are essential for social practice — highlight this highly meaningful contradiction of urbanism.
With Lefebvre, we consider space above all as visual, where the eye rules Lefebvre Aerial photography helps us to single out this space — the modern center of Mexico City and the area to the west — and analyze it in terms of physical space and the views from above. Other kinds of observation and analysis could be made with street level images or even audiovisual records.
The pictures created through aerial photography could not have been imagined, for the
21 dias toreando online dating views drawn and painted by artists envisioned the space in a different way. An illustrative analogy can be made with pastry, whose layers are separated to see what was once there but is no longer — aerial photography helps analyze how the superpositions took place, and what took the place of what.
The quantity and density of data contained in the photographs of the city makes this a considerable challenge for research. The invention of photography has made other ways of seeing possible: This inexorably leads to the question of truth in images, the subject of discussion for centuries, but which photographs call into question. It is important to take a closer look at what we can learn from aerial photographs, as Chombart did over half a century ago Krauss This is clearly seen if we compare, for example, Figure 1 with Figure 2.
The vertical planes can be seen much better in the latter, since an oblique view, unlike a vertical view, permits a vertical surface to be seen. He also notes that a series of consecutive shots, made while circling a site,
21 dias toreando online dating differing slightly from the last which may require more than one overflight3 can be extremely useful.
Oblique view to the south of El Caballito Circle in the early s. The west side of El Caballito Circle at the beginning of s.
As we shall see, the development of aerial photography in Mexico is linked to types of documentation and urban analysis, used in support of various nationalist projects that were promoted according to the styles and beliefs in fashion at different times.
In our analysis, we will observe what the aerial photographs can tell us about urban space, the universal commodity par excellence. Space is not neutral, but produces social interactions that in turn give rise to urban space in the practice of business and social relationships Santos The aerial photographs of the El Caballito Circle examined here will demonstrate this in various ways.
According to Lefebvrian theory, the form of social space is the meeting and the simultaneity, while nature-space resists and scatters.
This would be wholly true if it referred only to physical space, but social space is distinguished from occupied space by 21 dias toreando online dating very fact of its complicity with social structure; with the productive forces and division of labor that are apparent in social space. To better understand this approach, I shall examine what the prevailing ideas about the city were at the time when commercial aviation was being established.
I describe some features of urban planning in Mexico City 21 dias toreando online dating the s, as a background to the observations I make about the site from the aerial photographs. I begin with a description and analysis of the photographs, and then note some possible interpretations and compare them to conclusions drawn from other photographs at other heights and at ground level.
Investigating the of Mexico City of the s yields fruitful comparisons with the following decade, when aerial photography became almost commonplace. These provided a reference for ideas of the concept of Mexico City at the time; how it was and how people wanted it to be, its influence, and planned construction.
The first two are specialized journals, and the latter was directed at a more general readership. By that time, the model to be followed had become the functionalism prevailing in the United States. Ideas on how the transformation of Mexico City should be conceived and implemented were based on examples from American cities and theories, and the journal even printed articles by American city planners.
Traffic was one problem that was repeatedly pointed out. If the city had six thousand vehicles inby the number had more than doubled, to 13, and was estimated to reachby Numerous proposals and models were put forward to avoid having the city plunge into chaos. Photographs were frequently used, of course, as proof that traffic jams were worsening at particular points, to justify plans for remodeling intersections, creating or changing one-way streets, widening avenues, building underpasses and, above all, laying out broad avenues in imitation of American cities.
This magazine also printed information about American cities.
He stated that the main applications of aerial photography would include locating high-tension power lines, construction of dams and ports, forest and agricultural studies, location of railways and highways, and land valuation.
Aerial photographs would enable the precise location of types of constructions; an assessment of the value of such construction; the distribution of parks and gardens; the alignment of streets and avenues; the identification of topography; the identification of the precise relationship of different elements of the city; the identification 21 dias toreando online dating the precise location of rivers, mountains, wooded areas, dams, canals, and drainage; and more.
In short, aerial photography facilitates the work of judiciously planned urban improvements, street widening, and construction of new streets. For regional planning, aerial photography would enable a broad, integrated vision of a county or a district and a precise mapping 21 dias toreando online dating its relief and topographic features.
In this regard, aerial photography facilitates the planning of public works that require this information, such as water intake, laying drinking water and drainage pipes, power transmission, and so on. When two cities are relatively close together, their problems are not unique to each one, but regional, because of their mutual influence on each other.
This is when aerial maps can be most useful, enabling the problems to be tackled together as one region. Traffic studies in a city.
In this case, together with the topographic survey, a count is made of the automobiles and carriages. Traffic flow at the intersections is studied in order to find the relationship between the number of automobiles in a given area and their speed and the number of cars that cross the intersection in a given time.
This text reveals two main concerns. First was the desire to design and organize the city, especially by designing large intersections and streets. This implied an increase in land value; in the particular case of the intersection studied here, the value of the "21 dias toreando online dating" rose to the point where it was among the most expensive in the
21 dias toreando online dating. The second concern was to assess traffic and to estimate its effects. Its potential was radically transformed with the creation of the Paseo de la Emperatriz later to be renamed Paseo de la Reforma during the Empire of Maximilian —who sought to link the city to Chapultepec and the imperial residence, making the land along this avenue the most valuable in the future city.
But if the use of photographs in such magazines was becoming commonplace, another Federal District publication with a more popularizing outreach, the magazine Nuestra ciudadprinted shorter articles with even more photographs, "21 dias toreando online dating" aerial photographs.
Here, however, they included no references or credits. The photographs were not used so much to document or prove the existence of problems or to justify proposals as for aesthetic purposes, and above all to paint the city in a flattering light. Naturally the magazine included photographs — even aerial photographs — of the El Caballito roundabout and the surrounding area, often emphasizing the problem of traffic in the modern city. Of particular interest is that in the case of this magazine, photography was even used in their advertising.
At least two issues in carried this full-page advertisement:. Not only photographs themselves abounded in the magazine, but also articles about them. One example is an ode to the photographic work of Hugo Brehme, who received extensive recognition for his exhibition, which took up a good part of the issue.
The consistently patriotic tone was heightened for the summer and autumn issues, which lauded the wonders of Mexico, promoting it for potential international tourism.