Reading Styles succeeds because it places the instructional focus where it should be: At present, only one-third of U. Nearly the same number of students cannot function even at the most basic level of literacy.
Further, the reading abilities of U. Though slight, this
Accommodating reading styles inventory comes at a time when the nation desperately needs a highly literate population for a much more demanding and internationally competitive workplace. Ample evidence suggests that business as usual—the traditional teacher-directed classroom with its lectures, board work, and worksheets—has not worked for youngsters who are in the bottom third academically, many of whom are poor, minority, or immigrant students.
During the past decade, however, teaching grounded in the Reading Styles model has demonstrated the power to bring about rapid results with these youngsters.
Within two years, Margil Elementary School, an inner-city school in San Antonio, rose from 61st place to 9th academically among the district's 65 elementary schools.
The following year, Margil surpassed district averages in all basic subjects. As a result, Reading Styles spread to 37
Accommodating reading styles inventory Antonio elementary schools—on a voluntary basis. InBledsoe County, Tennessee, schools averaged a stanine score of only 3 in reading—not unusual for a rural school in a poverty area. Three years later, Bledsoe schools rose by two stanines in reading, equaling state and national averages. At Tucson's Canyon del Oro High School, 33 special education students made average gains of nearly 2 years or 12 NCEs in reading comprehension in just four months Queiruga What improved these students' achievement so dramatically? How do u flirt with a girl
Although some students have been able to adapt to our instruction, our track record and common sense offer ample testimony that a great many cannot. Reading Styles is ideal for inclusion programs for two primary reasons. First, it helps teachers to recognize that everyone—not just students labeled handicapped—has varying strengths and weaknesses.
Accommodating reading styles inventory, it facilitates collaborative instructional planning that places the focus where it should be: In most cases, Reading Styles training takes place on site, and core groups of people at the school or in the district become trainers in Reading Styles theory and strategies. These core groups, in turn, train and coach other teachers.
Students have shown the greatest gains in their reading abilities when teachers have used three key Reading Styles strategies—consistently and intensively: Identify students' strengths; Match reading methods, materials, and strategies to those strengths; and Provide sufficient modeling and demonstration of reading. Reading Styles teachers also: Use well-written, high-interest reading materials; and Encourage students to read and learn in comfortable, relaxed environments in a variety of individualized and group settings.
The relaxing environment and emotional support help to make youngsters open and receptive to learning. Reading Styles research, indicates, however, that it is the instructional methodology and materials used that play the biggest role in improving reading Barber and Carbo Why do some young people learn to read fluently while others in the same reading program struggle?
One reason is that our individual reading styles predispose us to learn easily by using a particular reading technique see fig. The problem is that different reading methods and materials demand different reading strengths of the learner.
If a student has the strengths, a match occurs, and he or she learns to read easily and enjoyably. If, however, there is a mismatch between the student and the approach, the instruction itself will hinder that youngster's learning to read. Recall what they see Follow written or drawn instructions Learn by observing people, objects, pictures, etc. Using computer graphics; performing visual puzzles; looking at or designing maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, cartoons, posters, bulletin boards.
With sight methods,
Accommodating reading styles inventory words, silent reading, words accompanied by pictures or slides, stories in filmstrips or videos. Recall what they hear Follow spoken instructions Learn by listening and speaking. Talking, interviewing, debating, participating on a panel, asking and answering questions, memorizing, making oral reports.
With phonics, choral reading, by listening to stories and recordings of books, discussing stories, reading orally. Recall what they touch Follow instructions they write or touch Learn by touching or manipulating objects. Doodling, sketching, playing board games, building models, constructing dioramas and relief maps, setting up experiments, writing, tracing.
By playing games or reading instructions, then making something. Recall
Accommodating reading styles inventory they experience Follow instructions that they perform or rehearse Learn when engaged in physical activity.
Make decisions based on emotions and intuition Are spontaneous, random Focus on creativity and inventiveness Care less about a tidy environment. Information presented in an interesting or humorous story, with examples, interesting materials, group work and activities.
With holistic reading methods, such as recorded books, story writing, choral reading, with books, computer software, audiovisual materials, projects and games. Make decisions based on logic or common sense Plan and organize well Focus on details and facts Like a tidy environment.
Information presented in sequential steps, with rules and examples, structured materials, teacher-directed lessons, clear goals and requirements. With auditory phonics, programmed materials, puzzles, some worksheets—reinforced by strategies appropriate for global learners.
It follows that teachers need to identify their students' strengths to capitalize on them. The inventory produces a profile describing a child's strengths and the best way of teaching that child to read. In the example in Figure 2, Melinda, a 4th grader, reads on a 2nd grade level. She is a poor speller, reverses and omits letters, and has great difficulty sounding out words. She
Accommodating reading styles inventory has minimal analytic, auditory, and visual strengths.
She does, however, have strong tactile and
Accommodating reading styles inventory strengths. She also has what we call strong global tendencies see fig. That is, she is spontaneous and inventive, and tends to make decisions based on intuition rather than logic.
Reading Style Profile Student Name: Strong global tendencies Minimal analytic tendencies. Minimal auditory strengths Minimal "Accommodating reading styles inventory" strengths Good tactile strengths Excellent kinesthetic strengths. Fernald method Carbo Recorded-Book method Modeling methods. Combine "Accommodating reading styles inventory" with building, doing, floor games Include writing, drawing, games Teach holistically with humor, stories, games Provide colored overlays; use large print Limit routines, rules, directions, details.
To capitalize on Melinda's tactile and kinesthetic strengths, her teacher can use hands-on materials, manipulatives that involve the large muscles, and word-tracing methods such as the Fernald reading method.
She can also use modeling to compensate for and help reverse Melinda's visual and auditory weaknesses. In addition, because Melinda is strong globally, she will do best with information that is presented in an interesting or humorous story, with many examples.
Now, let's see how these strategies might work in an actual classroom. Suppose Melinda and her classmates are writing stories.
Her teacher circulates around the room providing guidance and support. Melinda needs help with the spelling of a word. Becuse she is strongly tactile, her teacher uses the Fernald method: Melinda then traces the crayoned word with her index finger a few times, feeling its contours as she says the word tactile and auditory input. She repeats this process several
Accommodating reading styles inventory reinforcement.
Next, Melinda writes the word into her story practice. When she finishes her story, she listens to a peer read it modeling. Then, they read it aloud in unison—that is, choral-read it simultaneous modeling and practice until Melinda feels confident enough to read it alone performance.
Melinda has learned the correct spellings of the words needed for her story. And note that she reads her story only after her reading style has been accommodated with tactile input, reinforcement, practice, and modeling. Before they read, youngsters like Melinda need to repeatedly see and hear
Accommodating reading styles inventory words as a good reader reads them aloud. This modeling process is especially important for youngsters who cannot easily remember words, as well as for those with limited English Carbo and Kapinus Unfortunately, most struggling readers simply do not
Accommodating reading styles inventory the amount and kind of modeling they require.
Students who are barely able to read often spend too much time in either of two useless activities: What's more, they are given boring, low-level books that often insult their intelligence.
Following are six effective modeling methods for teaching reading. As we move down the list, each method provides the student with less and less modeling, leading to independent reading.
Shared reading —The teacher reads an enlarged book to students while pointing to the words. After a few readings, the teacher encourages the youngsters to read along.
While listening, the student looks at the words two or three times, then reads the passage aloud. Echo reading —The teacher reads aloud a small amount of text as little as a sentence or two while the student follows along.
Then the student reads back the same
Accommodating reading styles inventory. Choral reading —Two or more
Accommodating reading styles inventory read a passage in unison.
Paired reading —Two students or an adult and a student take turns reading a story. Sustained silent reading —The student reads alone.
The Reading Style Inventory (RSI)...
Sustained silent reading is our goal. At this point, the student receives no modeling of the text. Note that the modeling methods of storytelling and reading aloud are not on the list. If they were, they would be placed at the very top. Storytelling models oral language through stories, and reading aloud familiarizes students with the sound and
Accommodating reading styles inventory of written language.
may acknowledge and accommodate individual differences in styles and preferences . Verbalisers 'consider the information they read, see or listen to, in words or verbal.
Figure 1. Accommodating Reading Styles...
Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory (LSI) is a self-report questionnaire. Figure 1.
Guiding Principles and Recommendation
Accommodating Reading Styles To do this, we use observation techniques and the Reading Style Inventory or RSI (Carbo). the Carbo Reading Styles Inventory. The students in the other. approach does not accommodate the different learning styles of his/her students.