Sexually transmitted diseases STDs are the infections and resulting clinical syndromes caused by approximately 30 infectious organisms. Sexual activity is the predominant mode of transmission, through genital, anal, or oral mucosal contact.
STDs are among the most common infectious diseases and can be caused by bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens. Annually, an estimated Worldwide, an estimated million cases of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and trichomoniasis occur each year.
Some STDs are more prevalent in developing countries chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum [LGV], granuloma inguinale [donovanosis] or in specific regions gonorrhea with treatment failure and decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins in Asia and may be imported into other countries by travelers returning from such locales.
Infection with multiple STDs is common.
Casual sexual relationships occur frequently during travel to foreign countries. In a systematic review published inthe pooled prevalence of travel-associated casual sex among foreign travelers was In addition, commercial sex in various destinations, such as Southeast Asia, attracts many foreign travelers. Commercial sex workers in some regions have high rates of STDs, including HIV, and travelers who have sex with them risk acquiring these infections.
Knowledge of the clinical presentation, frequency of infection, and antimicrobial resistance patterns is needed to manage STDs that occur in travelers. Assessing risk for men who have sex with men is important because of the recent increased rates of infectious syphilis, gonorrhea with treatment failure and decreased susceptibility to cephalosporins, and LGV in various geographic locations. Many infections, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea, may be asymptomatic, so screening for these infections and serologic testing for syphilis 3 bacterial sexually transmitted infections powerpoint be encouraged among travelers who report high-risk behaviors.
Any traveler with sexual exposure who develops vaginal, urethral, or rectal discharge, an unexplained rash or genital lesion, or genital or pelvic pain should be advised to cease sexual activity and promptly seek medical evaluation.
Some systemic infections are acquired through sexual transmission such as hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV, syphilis, Zika infection.
Human papillomavirus HPV infection is usually subclinical and asymptomatic and most often clears spontaneously within 2 years. However, persistent HPV infection 3 bacterial sexually transmitted infections powerpoint lead to genital warts, cervical and other anogenital cancers, and oropharyngeal cancer. Because many travelers do not volunteer a history of sexual contact during travel, clinicians should inquire about sexual exposures when caring for returned travelers. Genital ulcer evaluation should include a serologic test for syphilis and a culture or PCR test for genital herpes.
If exposure occurred in areas where chancroid is more common Africa, Asia, and Latin Americaa test for Haemophilus ducreyi should also be performed. Lymphadenopathy can accompany genital ulceration with chancroid infections, as well as with LGV and donovanosis. If painful perianal ulcers are present or mucosal ulcers are detected on anoscopy, presumptive therapy should include a regimen for anogenital herpes.
LGV should be suspected in a traveler with tender unilateral inguinal or femoral lymphadenopathy or proctocolitis.
Presumptive treatment for LGV should be considered for men who have sex with men and who have proctitis and perianal or mucosal ulcers, after obtaining specific testing for Chlamydia trachomatis culture, direct immunofluorescence, or nucleic acid testing from relevant specimens genital lesions, rectal, or lymph node. Of note, for patients presenting with proctitis, C. While a positive result is not a definitive diagnosis of LGV, the results might aid in the presumptive clinical diagnosis of LGV proctitis.
Donovanosis is endemic in India, Papua New Guinea, central Australia, and southern Africa and is diagnosed with a crush tissue preparation from the lesion. Testing specimens from the anatomic site of exposure with nucleic acid amplification tests 3 bacterial sexually transmitted infections powerpoint detect C.
Culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing should be considered when gonorrhea is suspected, because of geographic differences in antimicrobial susceptibility. Various diagnostic methods are available to identify the cause of an abnormal vaginal "3 bacterial sexually transmitted infections powerpoint," including microscopic evaluation and pH testing of vaginal secretions, DNA probe-based testing, nucleic acid amplification testing, and culture.
Diagnosis of anogenital warts is made by visual inspection, with confirmation by biopsy if clinically indicated.
The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in different areas should be considered when selecting treatment regimens. Early detection and treatment are important, as many STDs are asymptomatic.
STDs can often result in serious and long-term complications, including pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, stillbirths and neonatal infections, anogenital and other cancers, and an increased risk for HIV acquisition and transmission.
The prevention and control of STDs are based on accurate risk assessment, education, counseling, early identification of asymptomatic infection, and effective treatment of patients and their sex partners. Pretravel advice should include specific messages with strategies to avoid acquiring or transmitting STDs. Abstinence or mutual monogamy with an uninfected partner is the most reliable way to avoid acquiring and transmitting STDs. For people whose sexual behaviors place 3 bacterial sexually transmitted infections powerpoint at risk for STDs, correct and consistent use of the male latex condom can reduce the risk of HIV infection and other STDs, including chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis.
Preventing lower genital tract infections might reduce the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease in women. Correct and consistent use of male latex condoms also reduces the risk of HPV infection, genital herpes, syphilis, and chancroid, although data are limited. Only water-based lubricants such as K-Y Jelly or glycerin should be used with
3 bacterial sexually transmitted infections powerpoint condoms because oil-based lubricants such as petroleum jelly, shortening, mineral oil, or massage oil can weaken latex condoms.
Prompt evaluation of sexual partners is necessary to prevent reinfection and disrupt transmission of many STDs.