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Best online dating profile pictures examples commensalism

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Commensalism is a long term biological interaction symbiosis in which members of one species gain benefits while those of the other species neither benefit nor are harmed. The commensal the species that benefits from the association may obtain nutrients, shelter, support, or locomotion from the host species, which is substantially unaffected.

The commensal relation is often between a larger host and a smaller commensal; the host organism is unmodified, whereas the commensal species may show great structural adaptation consonant with its habits, as in the remoras that ride attached to sharks and other fishes. Both remora and pilot fish feed on the leftovers of their hosts' meals.

Numerous birds perch on bodies of large mammal herbivores or feed on the insects turned up by grazing mammals. The word "commensalism" is derived from the word "commensal", meaning "eating at the same table" in human social interaction, which in turn comes through French from the Medieval Latin commensalismeaning "sharing a table", from the prefix com-meaning "together", and mensameaning "table" or "meal".

Pierre-Joseph van Beneden introduced the term "commensalism" in The commensal pathway was traveled by animals that fed on refuse around human habitats or by animals that preyed on other animals drawn to human Best online dating profile pictures examples commensalism. Those animals established a commensal relationship with humans in which the animals benefited but the humans received little benefit or harm.

Later, these animals developed closer social or economic bonds with humans and lead to a domestic relationship.

The leap from a synanthropic population to a domestic one could only have taken place after the animals had progressed from anthropophily to habituation, to commensalism and partnership, at which point the establishment of a reciprocal relationship between animal and human would have laid the foundation for domestication, including captivity and human-controlled breeding.

From this perspective, animal domestication is a coevolutionary process in which a population responds to selective pressure while adapting to a novel niche that includes another species with evolving behaviors.

The dog was the first domesticated animal, and was domesticated and widely established across Eurasia before the end of the Best online dating profile pictures examples commensalismwell before the cultivation of crops or the domestication of other animals.

The wolves more likely drawn to human camps were the less-aggressive, subdominant pack members with lowered flight response, higher stress thresholds, and less wary around humans, and therefore better candidates for domestication.

In contrast, cats may have become fully dependent on a commensal lifestyle before being domesticated by preying on other commensal animals, such as rats and mice, without any human provisioning.

Debate over the extent to which some wolves were commensal with humans prior to domestication stems from debate over the level of human intentionality in the domestication process, which remains untested.

The earliest sign of domestication in dogs was the neotonization of skull morphology [13] [14] [5] and the shortening of snout length that results in tooth crowding, reduction in tooth size, and a reduction in the number of teeth, Best online dating profile pictures examples commensalism [5] which has been attributed to the strong selection for reduced aggression.

A mitochondrial, microsatellite, and Y-chromosome assessment of two wolf populations in North America combined with satellite telemetry data revealed significant genetic and morphological differences between one population that migrated with and preyed upon caribou and another territorial ecotype population that remained in a boreal coniferous forest. Although these two populations spend a period of the year in the same place, and though there was evidence of gene flow between them, the difference in prey—habitat specialization has been sufficient to maintain genetic and even coloration divergence.

A different study has identified the remains of a population of extinct Pleistocene Beringian wolves with unique mitochondrial signatures.

The skull shape, tooth wear, and isotopic signatures suggested these remains were derived from a population of specialist megafauna hunters and scavengers that became extinct while less specialized wolf ecotypes survived. Numerous genera of bacteria and fungi live on and in the human body as part of its natural flora.

The fungal genus Aspergillus is capable of living under considerable environmental stress, and thus is capable of colonising the upper gastrointestinal tract where relatively few examples of the body's gut flora can survive due to highly acidic or alkaline conditions produced by gastric acid and digestive juices.

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