The purpose of this study was to better understand the role of Title IX coordinators and their policies across four-year universities and two-year community colleges in the United States U.
The data come from an online survey that included Title IX coordinators across four-year private and public and two-year campuses and represented 42 different states in the US.
The current study found that most Title IX coordinators were in part-time positions with less than three years of experience.
Most of the coordinators and their investigators were trained in Title IX policies. The findings suggest that the majority of campuses are continuing to increase their Title IX visibility; however, there are several recommendations for campuses to improve their policies. The current study was able to shed light on how Title IX "History day project title ix sexual harassment" do their jobs and the role they play in helping with the challenging issues surrounding sexual violence at institutions across the nation.
Sexual violence against college women continues to be a pervasive public health issue with approximately one in five women experiencing sexual assault and one in nine women experiencing rape while in college [ 123 ].
They have subsequently released a list of college campuses under investigation for mishandling or inappropriately handling cases of sexual violence in accordance with Title IX.
The list, which started out with 55 campuses inhas increased to active investigations for possible mishandling of reports of sexual violence at colleges as of see the Chronicle of Higher Education Title IX Tracker [ 7 ]. The Title IX coordinator is responsible for coordinating responses to all complaints involving possible sex discrimination. This responsibility includes monitoring outcomes, identifying and addressing any patterns, and assessing effects on the campus climate.
Such coordination can help campuses avoid Title IX violations, particularly violations involving sexual harassment and violence, by preventing incidents from recurring or becoming systemic problems that affect the wider community.
However, there is little, if any, empirical research that has examined the role of Title IX coordinators regarding how they handle Title IX complaints, their training, background, and their specific knowledge of campus resources and Title IX federal legislation.
Title IX coordinators directly impact campus response to victims of sexual violence and, as the number of OCR investigations rises, are increasingly under pressure to manage this issue within institutions of higher education. A better understanding of these coordinators on campuses could assist in the effort to develop or improve current campuses and their Title IX policies and programming. It could also provide information that can assist campuses in understanding how to improve their Title IX presence to help victims to better understand the resources available to them.
Title IX of the Education Amendments is a federal law that prohibits sex-based discrimination in higher education. Inthe Clery Act also known as the Crime Awareness and Campus Security Act [ 8 ] was amended to the federal financial aid laws to require all college campuses to disclose their campus crime statistics and security information.
The Violence Against Women Act VAWA [ 9 ], established inprovided legal definitions of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking and was added to the crimes History day project title ix sexual harassment under the Clery Act [ 8 ]. Inthe Department of Education issued Revised Harassment Guidance [ 10 ], which first noted the legal obligation of schools to establish one individual on campus who would be responsible for all matters relating to Title IX compliance.
This individual is required to have appropriate training on the law and the issues covered under it. ORC also issued the Dear Colleague Letter [ 5 ], which stated unequivocally that all education institutions, including college campuses both public and privateas well as K secondary schools, must take immediate action to eliminate hostile environments, prevent recurrences, and address any effects.
The letter also provided specific guidance procedures: In addition, their appointed Title IX coordinator must be easily History day project title ix sexual harassment for all students and employees and must be included on a campus webpage that lists their name and contact information. And if more than one coordinator exists, campuses and schools must decide who will handle cases separately for students and faculty. The DCL also indicated that Title IX coordinators should not have any other job responsibilities that may create a conflict of interest e.
They must have adequate training on sexual harassment, sexual assault, and all grievance procedures that include equitable and prompt resolutions. Their resolutions can include voluntary mediation, but this was not strongly encouraged for sexual assault complaints.
Not only is it difficult to determine whether campuses even abide by these rules, there
History day project title ix sexual harassment very little information about their entire processes given that campuses across the country operate differently. In terms of student conduct boards and appeal panels, there is no empirical research that examines who hears sexual assault cases and meets with victims and perpetrators.
Prior to the guidance document published by OCR, Karjane, Fisher, and Cullen [ 12 ] assessed campus policies from institutions of higher education IHE and found that: Following the updated guidelines and the DCL [ 5 ], Amar et al. When respondents were found responsible for sexual misconduct, sanctions varied from suspension, expulsion, no-contact orders, counseling, community service hours, restitution, or fines.
Richards [ 14 ] conducted a follow-up study to Karjane et al. However, the specific training and level of commitment of the Title IX coordinators were missing from these studies.
Most were appointed to their position or absorbed the role for various reasons; however, they were not relieved of any other duties and received no increase in their salary.
Coordinators reported that their roles were emotionally charging and heavy at times, as they needed to know how to work the university political system in terms of getting resources and making things happen. They also needed to be well known by the campus community, which they found challenging. Lastly, History day project title ix sexual harassment coordinator stated: The rules sometimes keep changing.
The interpretation of things is changing. Thus, most felt that it was difficult to keep up with changing regulations and the complex issues of Title IX. Time also seemed to be a huge issue; coordinators stated that it was difficult to close cases within 60 days, especially when they held other full-time jobs. Federal guidelines remain a moving target for administrators; in Septemberthe newly installed republican Secretary of Education reversed many of the newly established policies within the DCL and the revised guidelines.
She also reversed a established guideline, which strongly discouraged utilizing mediation as a means for adjudication. The current OCR ended the requirement that IHEs utilize the preponderance of evidence standard in adjudicating complaints [ 16 ].
Currently, the Department of Education has not released the promised revised guidelines. However, attorneys and advocates have indicated in media reports that a large percentage of colleges have ignored this guidance and are maintaining their policies based on the DCL authored by the previous administration [ 17 ].
In general, many four-year public and private colleges offer a variety of educational programs e. Most postsecondary institutions, particularly larger public and private colleges, also offer on-campus disciplinary procedures for sexual assault cases.
Despite the emergence of concern about the sexual victimization of college students, little empirical research has been published about the Title IX process and the role of coordinators in addressing sexual violence on campus through prevention, support services, reporting, investigation, and adjudication. "History day project title ix sexual harassment" of the fastest growing fields within Student Affairs departments on "History day project title ix sexual harassment" campuses is Title IX-related jobs [ 22 ].
The qualifications needed are substantial listening skills, organization, and follow-through with unpredictable hours, and they have to be extremely knowledgeable about sexual violence and Title IX, yet they must remain neutral and unbiased at all times. Typically their jobs are tacked onto other job duties, with no extra time or pay allotted [ 23 ].
As well, there are changing rules and regulations from OCR and Title IX policies of which coordinators and campuses must be aware, or they could be held accountable i. Using empirical data, the aim of this study was to use an exploratory design to understand the roles of a national sample of Title IX coordinators from two-year community colleges and four-year private and public universities. Understanding how campuses are responding to the ever-changing and often confusing guidelines could inform future policymakers seeking to prevent and adjudicate campus sexual violence.
According to a recent National Center for Education Statistics report [ 24 ], there were 17 million undergraduate students in the United States attending degree-granting postsecondary institutions, which are identified as institutions that are four- or two-year institutions and either public or private for nonprofit. The focus was on these campuses excluding those outside the geographical U. Approximately two-year community colleges and four-year public and private-nonprofit universities were identified via the Campus Safety and Security Data Analysis Cutting Tool provided by the Office of Postsecondary Education of the U.
Department of Education [ 25 ]. After collecting the list of names and emails, an online, close-ended, question survey via Qualtrics was created and sent to the Title IX coordinators.
The survey was completely anonymous with no identifying information regarding names or campus names to protect all individuals and their respective campuses.
Participants were given an incentive opportunity where if they chose to participate by including their email address, one random winner would be chosen for a one-day, free training through the Association of Title IX Administrators ATIXA [ 26 ]. For the online survey, coordinators provided general demographic information, as well as answered questions regarding Title IX policies and procedures i.
Researchers identified two-year community colleges with student enrollment ranging from to 91, students. A total of Title IX coordinators participated in the online survey; however, 26 were removed because the majority of their answers were missing.
Thus, the final sample included Title IX coordinators across four-year private: The range of time spent in their Title IX role varied: There were a wide range of academic roles that the Title IX coordinator was also involved in on their campus: Approximately Title IX coordinators reported that their appellate bodies were made up of various entities: The Dear Colleague Letter [ 5 ] sought to establish prompt resolution for investigations by campus officials.
Specifically, it states that it should not take longer than 60 days from start to finish. Title IX coordinators reported various organizations and memberships of which they were a part: As for training, see Table 1 for History day project title ix sexual harassment list of the various trainings that Title IX coordinators reported for themselves, investigators, and hearing panels, as well as which ones they felt were most helpful. Higher Education Professional Development.
As a means of ensuring that policies evolve to meet particular, campus-specific needs, the DCL [ 5 ] strongly recommends a campus climate survey.
Lastly, we examined whether there were differences among the three types of campuses i.
There were no other differences among the three types of campuses in terms of reporting structures, or policies. The current study assessed the role of Title IX coordinators and their policies at college campuses including two-year community colleges, and four-year private and public universities representing 42 different states see Table 2.
The burden placed on these part-time administrators is noteworthy. It is not surprising, therefore, that it took coordinators an average of 48 days to conduct the full investigation and decision-making process, which is under the day limit by the Dear Colleague Letter [ 5 ]; however, the time taken to complete the Title IX processes ranged up to days for some Title IX coordinators, which is concerning.
Due to the lack of knowledge regarding the training that Title IX coordinators receive, the current study assessed organizations and trainings in which they participated, as well as their investigators and hearing panels, if applicable. In general, the majority of Title IX coordinators felt that they were well-trained to do their jobs, along with their investigators, while there seemed to be some concern regarding hearing panels.
There is certainly room for improvement in this area. SinceATIXA has provided a Title IX coordinator training and certification course, thus it is not surprising that History day project title ix sexual harassment was the most commonly reported training resource used by campus Title IX coordinators.
However, this may have been due to timing the report was only released inwhereas now it has been several years, and surveys are much easier to distribute due to national companies that assist with campus climate surveys e. Campus climate surveys are considered one of the most accurate ways to capture the rates of campus sexual assaults [ 34 ], yet they must also ensure student confidentiality and be short and electronically accessible with incentives to increase participation e.
There is a lack of knowledge on the part of schools when they fail to survey their students. Schools that rely strictly on victim reporting, as some schools do, likely get relatively few reports in comparison to the sexual violence actually occurring [ 34 ]. According to the AAU survey [ 1 ], the primary reason for not reporting an incident was that the victim deemed it not important enough.
Going forward, campuses should continue to increase the accessibility of policies, links, and Title IX coordinator information, along with campus climate surveys by making these public surveys and History day project title ix sexual harassment of the university communities, which have all increased substantially in the last few years on college campuses.
The increase of these preventative measures demonstrates at least some consistency with the spirit of the revised guidelines, which, as previously noted, are still utilized by a large contingent of institutions of higher education despite their recent revocation. With the revocation of the DCLmediation has now been deemed an appropriate way to resolve sexual assault allegations in the interim.
This is a stark change from the guidance provided by the Office of Civil Rights under the last few administrations [ 4 ]. Mediation is not a productive means to adjudicate sexual assaults and could perpetuate already low reporting numbers. Koss, Wilgus, and Williamsen [ 39 ] explained that. As such, they argue that this is not an effective or appropriate way to combat campus sexual violence.